Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2007). Input, interaction, and output in second language acquisition. Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction, 175199.
The article is a detailed account of the interrelationship between the constructs of input, interaction, feedback as well as output and their integration in second language acquisition. It further condenses the different constructs to form the interaction approach which was formerly referred to as the interaction hypothesis. However, the paper also criticizes the theory arguing that it subsumes several aspects of both the input and output hypotheses. Accordingly, the theory is not to be taken as a complete explanation of the second language acquisition process regardless of its regular use in literature.
The paper describes the various constructs and defines them in relation to the theory and how they integrate with each other to form a network of second language development. Essentially, the paper points out to the importance of speakers adjusting their conversations depending on the recipient’s level of understanding of the language in use. The manner in which learners can develop their second language through output modification is also explored. The purpose of output modification is to push the learners to produce better output and to give them a chance of making corrections themselves. Interaction further enhances the process of comprehension among the learners as they get to learn the language more practically through their native speaker friends.
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