“Sex and gender matters”

“Sex and gender matters”


“Sex and gender matters.”

Cifre Eva et al. (2018) analyzes to determine whether there is gender neutrality in access to employment especially in Spain where it is difficult to find a job in the labour market. While focusing on gender perspectives, Cifre Eva et al. (2018) studied both the sexes female and male based on androgynous, masculinity, femininity and the undifferentiated sex. The target population involved Spanish youngsters below 30 years of age. Individuals with not less than 2 years of work experience drawn from 20 production, service and retail organizations participated in the research. The respondents voluntarily and confidentially completed the questionnaires through the paper- and- pencil, as well as online.

Out of the questionnaires filled, 181 employees participated in the study. 53% of the respondents were female while 47% of the respondents were male. In a control experiment, Cifre Eva et al. (2018) collaborated with the Valencian Community public employment service to engage individuals younger than 30 years in research. The respondents were unemployed at the time of the research but had at least 2 years of work experience. Out of the questionnaires, confidentially and voluntarily completed 52% of the participants were male while 48% of them were female. The total sample of the unemployed youngsters was 237 compared to 181 employed respondents.

The objective of the study is to determine the gender perspective on the employability of the unemployed and the employed youngsters with a focus on Spain considering the high rates of unemployment in the country.


Employed young men showed that they have more employment opportunities within their organizations as compared to women. The young men also noted that they have minimal chances of securing employment in the external labor market. This reveals the belief regarding sex disparities in obtaining jobs and promotions within organizations. The results also indicate that certain organizational cultures act as barriers to the employability and advancement of women thus reproduce gender inequality. It seems that certain stereotypes still exist that limit women from competing effectively and holding equivalent positions in society as men do.

For the case of the unemployed, young women appeared to be more employable than men were. It is easy for women to secure job than men do. This shows that women often find low paying jobs, especially those done during part times. It could be that women easily take upon readily available part-time and low paying jobs to facilitate work- home concerns.

The findings confirm that sex and gender identity have an influence on both the perception and actual employment and that cultures which discriminate against a specific type of gender in terms of jobs and promotion still exists in some of the organizations in Spain.


Cifre, E., Vera, M., Sánchez-Cardona, I., & de Cuyper, N. (2018). Sex, Gender Identity, and Perceived Employability Among Spanish Employed and Unemployed Youngsters. Frontiers in psychology9, 2467. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02467