Teaching Questions


Identify the legal requirements of the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).  Identify the legal requirements of the Individualized Education Program (IEP).  Discuss the broader functions of the IFSP and IEP processes. This question assesses performance relative to course objective 1. (4 points)

The Individualized family service plan (IFSP) is a program involved in planning and recording involvement services that are critical for toddlers with any disability as required by the law. The programs record information of the family with much focus on the needs of the family. Some of the things needed from the family are the statements of the resources of the family; everything concerned with the toddlers’ development and the families priorities. The IFSP is revised after every six months to incorporate any changes in the toddler needs. In addition, the IFSP also includes the services and outcomes already achieved in respect to the toddler. The program records and plans the special education services for children aged three to twenty-one years. The programs team includes teachers, local education agencies, parents and all other stakeholders. The information recorded includes child’s education level, annual and academic goals and the milestones towards the achievement of the yearly objectives.

IEP on its part occurs either annually or at the discretion of the parent. The team has to identify the child’s achievements are areas of focus. Consider a child aged five years and only knows the names of a few objects. Is to name 80 objects, it is hard to measure the achievements. Thus, it needs to be broken to smaller pieces. This can be done by making monthly quarterly goals. This will ensure the objectives are specific, easy to measure and guide daily instruction. When developing a goal, it has to be based on any future plans, behaviors that affect learning negatively, past and projected development rates of the child and the current potential of the child.

IFSP is the road map to family’s involvement in early childhood intervention. It lays out the services the baby should receive and what results should be expected by the team. It boosts a child’s development up to the age of 3 years. IEP on the other hand is a plan for special education and other related services. It serves children aged 3 to 21 years. as IFSP concentrated on development, IEP concentrates on special development.


Based on the readings in the CDE Handbook on Developing & Implementing ECSE Programs, describe the Models of Service Delivery for infants and toddlers age birth to 3 and preschool age children.  Discuss the benefits of inclusive programs and providing services in natural environments. This question assesses performance relative to course objective 2. (4 points)

As described in the CDE handbook, there are models of service delivery from birth to age three in different settings. It is the responsibility of the elected service coordinator to list all services in the children’s IFSP. Depending on the nature and scope of the services to be provided by LEA, group services can be offered to a few children at a time. At times, the LEA can give services to only the children with low-incidence disabilities yearly while the specialized staff works with the families and the other children. Early intervention programs help the children to build relationships with parents and also guide the child’s growth and development. Besides, it is important for the parents and the teachers to work together to ensure the children grow and develop. The early intervention programs are available free of charge for families and children through a regional center or LEA.

In California, the models of service delivery include

  • Services are offered to the children at home
  • Special education for children in publicly funded programs
  • Dual enrollment in special education and childcare program
  • Special education for children in privately funded schools and childcare settings.
  • Special class day
  • Reverse mainstream special day

The inclusive program helps the disabled children and their families to increase involvement in the children’s programs. Inclusive programs have the following benefits;

  • Offers improvement in use of language
  • Understanding benefits and learning tolerance
  • A higher curriculum level
  • Increase parent participation in the program through working with peers
  • Overall development
  • Access to general curriculum
  • Positive understanding

Personally I believe that the main objective of special education is to ensure that children with disability have the opportunity of living a normal life like their peers. This would become more feasible if natural environments are offered to them. There are several service options provided by LEA that would help make this possible. This includes recreation centers, community sponsored activities, library, child development programs, early head start programs and play groups among others. The family should receive attention in this area since they are considered as being important confederates to the children. In the long-run, children with disability will have the opportunity of participating in societal programs. This is due to the gains that they will have made through the inclusive programs being offered under natural environments.


According to Copple and Bredekamp (2009) in chapter 1 of the DAP text, “To be an excellent teacher means… teaching to enhance development and learning.” (p. 36).  Identify developmentally appropriate strategies for teaching and highlight the relationship of these strategies to the implications for teaching that Vargas (2009) discusses in Chapter 3.  Finally, discuss the role of interpersonal relationships in teaching and learning. This question assesses performance relative to course objectives 3 & 11. (6 points)

Any teaching should aim to enhance learning and development. To ensure this, the teachers should use the following strategies;

  • Assist the children in completing their work
  • Appreciate the efforts of the children
  • Demonstrate problem-solving ways rather than just telling them
  • Appreciate when the children are right
  • Give specific rather than general feedback
  • Handle the children data as facts and have verbal labels
  • Observe and listen to what the children do and say
  • Authorize children actions and behaviors

For the children, they should keenly observe and absorb their teacher’s moral values and characters. For there to be an outstanding performance, it is significant for the teachers to maximally assist the children and the children to follow all the advice and directives of the teachers. The teachers together with other stakeholders should direct their efforts in ensuring that there is a conducive environment for the children to perform. In addition, the performance output for both the teachers and the students should be consistent and hand in hand. Teachers and other staff should ensure there is a good relationship between them and the students to avoid students’ isolation. Again, the parents and the teachers should maintain strong relationships to have a positive impact on the students learning. The teachers should create a good environment, respect diversity and interact with the children face-to-face.

The developmentally appropriate strategies are those that drive towards outstanding performance. Teachers should put their maximum efforts in helping the students to have a better performance. In addition, the teachers should ensure that the performance is consistent. This implies that the teachers should consistently work hard. The other staff in the school should also be involved in the day-to-day activities between the teachers and children.Interpersonal relationships between the teachers and the learners ensure that the students do not feel isolated. Interpersonal relationship ensures that the learners feel cared for and loved making it easy for them to learn.


According to Copple and Bredekamp (2009) in chapter 1 of the DAP text, “To be an excellent teacher means… being intentional.” (p. 33).  One aspect of intentional teaching is knowledge of developmentally appropriate objectives for learners.  Using chapter 5 of the DAP text and the California Preschool Learning Foundations, identify and discuss the objectives for preschool-age children’s learning. This question assesses performance relative to course objectives 4 & 6. (4 points)

One of the ways through which the school can give back to the society is by creating a society of caring intellects through,

  • Building a cohesive society: the same way the teachers create cohesiveness in the school, they should create cohesiveness in the society. By achieving this, both the society and school will live as one supporting each other in both school activities and community activities.
  • Nurturing positive relationship: teachers should demonstrate good morals in the process of building a teacher-student relationship. This should be rolled out to the extent of creating good relationships between teachers and students, teachers and parents, parents and students. Teachers should not only teach but also motivate and provide guidance and counseling to the students
  • Enhancing development: the purpose of learning is to gain substantive knowledge to build a bright future and individual in the society. To achieve this, the teaching institutions should ensure that the purpose of learning is achieved fully. To achieve the purpose of learning, some factors should be considered including schedule and environment, teaching methods, language and communication, guidance and positive learning approach.
  • Literacy and language: literacy and language will enable the students to speak, listen and understand. They will also have the ability to read and get motivated, have phonological awareness, write and have social completeness.
  • Plan a curriculum based on important goals: the curriculum should have the following essentials; a comprehensive scope, integration and coherence and effective implementation. The curriculum should also have physical development activities, gross motor development and fine motor development.

As a teacher, the objective is to ensure that these objectives are well instilled in the minds and behaviors of the students. It is the objective of a teacher to produce a developed student. Teacher guide their students and motivate them through being role models and maintaining high performance not only in academics but in other fields too.


Use the case study provided in the Assignments section of Blackboard attached to the Midterm Exam to respond to the following question. Using the case study information, the California Infant-Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, and the DAP textbook (ch. 3) examples for toddlers, identify one objective for the family and one objective for the child. Discuss the rationale for each choosing each objective. This question assesses performance relative to course objectives 4 & 6. (4 points)

For families with Cerebral Palsy (CP) infants, managing the chronic health complications has become a big challenge. For the physical and psychological well-being of the child and the parents, it is essential for there to be provision of health care such as juggling. As mentioned in the case study in the blackboard, families of the victimized children often feel isolated.

To avoid cases of isolation, the caregivers should warmly be able to communicate with the parents daily. The communication should be done in a respectful way to motivate the building of mutual understanding as well as trust. This will be very significant in solving any issues that arise. The major purpose of thee interventions is to address the different aspects of difficulties in feeding, reflect the specific problems range in association with nutrition and feeding in CP. For example, neuromuscular stimulation is used to address difficulties in chewing, sucking, swallowing and improving motor skills. The goal is to ensure that Carol can hold the spoon after three months. This will ensure that by the sixth month, Carol can be able to chew and swallow.


Use the case study provided in the Assignments section of Blackboard attached to the Midterm Exam to respond to the following question. Write an IFSP Outcome for each objective identified including Procedures, Criteria, and Timelines. Describe what recording methods will be used to monitor progress for each outcome. This question assesses performance relative to course objective 6. (4 points)

The objectives identified are establishing a relationship with the family and providing help when it comes to independent eating. The first objective is to make the IFSP outcomes to be family centered. When the parents are excluded from the sessions, they feel exiled from their children. The first outcome is based on participation. During the OT session involving Carl, parent participation should be there when needed to allow them to get the pre and post report of what was observed during the sessions. Marsha, on the other hand, will learn particularly about the interdisciplinary team with the Occupational Therapist.

The other outcomes are based on Carl for providing him the necessary skills to feed independently. As we already know, when it comes to feeding, Carl is on the low discrepancy stage. He can eat solid meals but has difficulties grasping the feeding utensils and feeding himself. Thus, Carl will be engaging in sensorimotor management and positioning to enable him be an independent eater. He also has a severe disability and poor muscular control which prevent him from holding any utensil for long.



Identify the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) recommended practices for using assistive technology.  Provide an example of high tech assistance and the circumstances under which it could be used effectively for a young child.  Provide an example of low tech assistance and the circumstances under which it could be used effectively for a young child. (4 points)

Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the council for exceptional children is an international organization that deals with infancy children together with their needs. The organization deals with children aged from infancy to age 8. The organizations recommend the use of technology in the improvement of the life of the children and their families. Benefits of using technology include independence in communication, facilitate involvement in developmental activities and assess children’s understanding, development and liability to participate in typical activities.

The assistive technology refers to both high and low tools that allow children of all ages to more independent. High tech examples of technology include Cell phone, automated toys, screen magnifiers and large computer screens. High tech technologies help the children to develop their skills in things that would find difficult to do without the use of certain tools.

Low-tech tools are also important. Low-tech examples include examples include pen holders, comfortable rockers, planners and special pillows. These tools will make it easy for the children to interact with each other in class and during playing time. They also help the special needs children to navigate the childhood environment.

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