CHAPTER 23 MODULE DISCUSSION
Tariffs, currency reform, civil service reformation, and employment are among the political issues at the gilded age. The first two were of the interest to the businessmen while the last two came about due to widespread reaction to corruption in the American states.
The panic was due to economic collapse suffered by whole nations globally. The profit did not materialize from the projects that were made by various sectors in the economy. As a result, many companies went bankrupt and the unemployment rate increased.
Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling tried to promote equality to some extent. The racial segregation but under equal doctrine was a step in driving away the racism in the United States. The landmark that was created promoted separate access to public facilities for each race but the same quality.
Sharecropping was a way landowners allowed the tenant to farm in their land and then share the profits while the crop-lien system was away the farmer’s get credits against the anticipated harvest. They all came due to the lack of slaves to work in the farms in the United States.
CHAPTER 24 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
The growth of the transcontinental railroad led to the growth of many towns. It also increased the immigrants into the United States as countries were connected. As a result, there was a cultural exchange among the people who interacted.
John D. Rockefeller. He is the founder of the standard oil company. His effort saw the company dominate the pipeline industry. Andrew Carnegie, the owner of Carnegie steel company. His tactics make him the best to his workers. Lastly, J.P. Morgan who invested in Electricity Company. His effort made him be in control of the railroad industry.
Social Darwinism highlights that all human races are subject to the law of natural selection. This leads to survival for the fittest where the strong human race that can struggle for existence survives in the society.
Knights of labor declined due to the Haymarket Square riot of 1886 that occurred in Chicago. Many people who were striking were killed leading to the formation of the union of labor to replace it.
CHAPTER 25 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
The old immigrants majorly came from southern and eastern Europe while the new majorly were the Greek, Italian, Russian and polish. The Americans discriminated them as they knew they were to compete for the few resources in the states.
Janes Addams was a social worker and an activist who won the Nobel Peace Prize. Urban settlement houses in America were meant to ease settlement problems such as poverty.
The interest in sports increased in the late nineteenth century as people who were not interested in athletics joined football and other sports. People shifted from baseballs to other sports. As a result, the sports industry increased in Europe.
Church leaders confront the congestion in urban life as they preached the gospel of social change for improvement in the daily life of the people. Women participated much in the urban environment as they looked for their place where there can be equality in gender.
CHAPTER 26 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
The Native Americans moved from their ancestral home to look for other places of residence. This is due to the Indian immigrants that moved from their lands and forced them to leave.
2Discuss the importance of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
Dawes severalty act helped to reduce the ability of tribes in the United States to live in their traditional way. It brought an end to communal land ownership and promoted individual land ownership by Native Americans. As a result, it reduced the conflicts that came across due to land ownership.
Most of the cities in the west developed due to mining activity. Many people moved to search for work, and as a result, the population increased leading to the growth of the cities. As a result, resource demand increased leading to increased settlement.
The movement passed into three periods, the grange, and the alliance and later to the populist movement. They were meant to promote high commodity prices through the formation of collective action. They had a grievance against the railroads that hinder their movement activities.
CHAPTER 27 MODULE DISCUSSION
The factors include economic, political, geographical and cultural.
The war was caused by American demand for Spain to end their colony over Cuba. Key battles were on the inheritance of the island of Cuba. It resulted in hostility among the states leading to peace debate to solve the problem among them.
Americans were divided as some of them feared that if they did not take control over the island of the Philippines, other powers could do so. As a result, this was to harm their economy which they were trying to prevent. On the other hand, some argued that Americans were not to involve in the colonialism. As a result, the questions over annexing of the Philippines met a lot of controversies.
Open door policy helps to support the territorial and administrative integrity of the Chinese. As a consequence, it was meant to protect the privileges of all the countries that were trading with China. This was to ensure that the countries benefit from the trade.
CHAPTER 28 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
The progressives were the social and political activists in the United States in the late eighteenth century to early nineteenth century. Their primary objectives were to eliminate all the social and political problems such as industrialization, immigration and corruption in politics among other issues.
Muckrakers were the influential journalists who were working so hard to reveal all the injustices and oversites caused by different people in American society. As a result, they increased the awareness about the social, economic and political problems that were affecting the American people. They also tried to look for ways on how to end them and ensure that the state is free from any issues.
Theodore was named the activist who worked to expose the social ills in American society. He nominated Taft whom they worked with to ensure that all the problems of the United States come to an end. They formed executives to endorse the square deal program that included the regulating trust and cleaning up the meat and drug industry which help them to improve the living standards of people.
The split between Roosevelt and Taft was caused by the election of 1912 which made Roosevelt have over-ambitious. Due to his ego, he could not accommodate Taft who opted to take his way. Taft believed in conservative while Roosevelt believed in progressives. When they could not agree on these issues, they split and operated separately. As a result, the Republican Party could not stand together as some members had to live depending on which side they supported.
CHAPTER 29 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
Wilson believed that business must be regulated and all monopolies within the economy to be eliminated. Roosevelt, on the other hand, thought that the business and the government could co-exist. Federal Reserve acts help to create economic stability in the United States by introducing central banks to check the monetary policy within the states.
Wilson’s foreign policy to Haiti was meant to respond to the revolution in Haiti. He did this by sending American marines to ensure that there is order in Haiti in an aim to clear the permanent revolution in that country. He also signed a treaty addressing the issues at the Dominican Republic that discusses methods used in securing the border area with some government such as the Mexican government.
Wilson involves the United States in the Mexican turmoil because he had economic interest as many Americans lived in Mexico. He was trying to ensure that the American residents do not suffer. Also, Americans owned a large percentage of land in Mexico which they made a lot of investment. As a result, the economic decline in Mexico was affecting the US directly.
The sinking of an American ship by Germany due to unrestricted submarine law which killed many of the United States’ citizens. Similarly, there was public opinion that pressurized the government to enter into the world war. These two issues majorly contributed to American entry into the world war one.
CHAPTER 30 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
The United States was advanced in their technology that they use to fight other countries. Their weapons were so advanced than their rivals, and this made them win most of the battles. Their troops were also highly trained which added the effort to the allies they joined.
Fourteen points were meant to bring peace among all the state that was involved in the world war. It brought an end to World War I hence leading the restoration of unity among all the nations.
The Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles because it lacked the two-thirds majority rule. The responsibility lied with Roosevelt who wanted the treaty to be passed so they could join the league of the nation.
Large scale violations were going against the espionage act of 1917 and the sedition act of 1918. Restriction to these civil liberties was highly recognized and going against them could result in punishment by imprisonment. As a result, everybody was to remain loyal to them and ensure that they are respected.
CHAPTER 31 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
Red scare originated from the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union. Due to the anticipated threat from this war by the communist, red scare came into existence. It leads to the formation of actions to counter the cold war effect on the United States society.
Socially, the countries remained in isolation in the 1920s. On the economic perspective, the rise of women in the labor force declined abruptly. The unemployment of women increased leading to gender inequality in the state.
Monkey trial helps people to know the relationship between creation and evolution. It helped people to defend their faith as well as learning much about the development of human beings and other living things. Also, people, it allows people to understand that both creation and evolution are all critical.
Modernism was an American movement away from tradition to use of the modern thing in their way of life. It helps Americans to change their view of religion, politics, and social among others from tradition view to current look. It turned many cultures of the United States who reformed into the modern way of life.
CHAPTER 32 MODULE DISCUSSIONS
The United States had a policy of pursuit to self-interest that made them discard progressivism. Due to this people believed that progressivism was trying to teach people against their view of their life. It was associated with the people of a particular class that could not accommodate all.
Isolationism led to depression in the United States economy as all the ruling leaders could do anything they deem best to them. Further, it led to the Second World War as the diplomatic resolve could not be possible. This was the same e case with the peace movement that did not allow any relationship of the United States with other countries.
American economy rose in the 1920s due to advancement in technologies such as automobile and other products that were produced in large number. Moreover, the introduction of Republican policies of isolationism and protectionism also contributed to the economic boom of the state.
The advancement of machines led to overproduction of products but less demand. As a result of the decrease in sales, the wages of workers were delayed leading to low money circulation hence fall in the economy.