Response to Question One
Clams and tube worms are among the animals that live around the hydrothermal vents. They differ in size as clams have a faster growth of four centimeters per year while tubeworms have a size of up to three meters. Since tubeworms have neither mouth nor digestive system, their internal body cavity is filled with bacteria which is responsible for the synthesis of organic molecules. These molecules are present in the sulfide which the tubeworm can transport to the bacteria.
Response to question two
Benthic algae grow attached by holdfast to rocks and any solid objects. It has a stem portion called stipes which serve the same purpose as the leaves and blades that helps in the absorption of light and act as photic zone. The green algae have pigment that is efficient in the trapping of the shorter wavelength of light while the red pigment absorbs the rest sunlight. They are dependent on sunshine hence confined to shallow depths of large water bodies and surrounded by dissolved carbon dioxide and nutrients which are exposing blades to water and sun.
Response to question three
Benthic algae are important in the oceanic environment as they provide food to the animals. For instance, some fish and other animals such as limpets feed directly on algae. They also offer a place of attachment to some smaller organisms. Lastly, they produce outer coverings known as calcareous which is essential in the building of coral reefs for tropical animals.
Response to question four
Sessile and motile animals have juvenile mobility stages that allow them to move to different places to look for food. Adult sessile get their food by either waiting for or run by waves to get food. On the other hand, the motile organism can pursue their prey by scavenging over the bottom or can decide to get food on seaweed covered rocks.
Response to question five
The rocky littoral fauna is well distributed making it be exposed. Due to exposure, it helps the marine animals to get adapted to the rocky shore.
Response to question six
The animals that can live in the supralittoral, the littoral, or the sublittoral zone must be mobile so they can get their foods at different parts of the rocky sides. This can also help them to escape from the predators as they can hide away from them.
Response to question seven
Subtidal organisms live in a tide pool because they do not like many changes in their environment. The tide pool provides such an environment that is efficient for their survival and also gives them an easy way to find food. Such organisms include starfish and sea cucumbers among other organisms.
Response to question eight
Noncohesive sediments are coarse and has pores of water hence loses speed. The waves along the sandy shores provide an unstable environment for the benthic algae which are the reason why only a few such organisms that can survive in such environment lives there.
Response to question nine
Benthic algae require bacteria for the synthesis of organic molecules. These molecules are the food that the organisms feed. In this regards, they are responsible for the provision of food to such organisms.
Response to question ten
Deep-sea floor has a broad square meter area compared to the rocky intertidal zone. As a result, many species live in the deep sea floor because it has many foods and also offer suitable habitat for organism adaptation. The rocky intertidal zones have an unstable environment which can be inhabited by few organisms that can survive there.
Response to question eleven
Devoid and clear water allows the sunlight to penetrate making the organisms to survive well. Clearwater also enables the organism to thrive well hence provide a good environment for their survival.
Response to question twelve
Coral bleaching is a process that occurs when algae that live inside coral polyps are expelled from their tissues. Coral bleaching happens because of the human activities, and it makes the algae to turn white completely.
Response to question thirteen
Both organisms that live in deep-ocean hot-water vents and those that live around gas and oil seeds depend on bacteria for the synthesis of the organic molecules for their food.
Response to question fourteen
Genetic manipulation is the gene transfer and chromosome manipulation in the fish. This is done to produce species of fish with rapid development and high growth rate. Even though these techniques are advantageous, they disturb the life of an organism. In this way, they bring more bad than good to fish species as some species are depleted.
Response to question fifteen
Both photosynthesis and chemosynthesis produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. However, they are different as photosynthesis uses sunlight while chemosynthesis uses chemicals.