In the analysis, Norton used data from local authorities of the cities and 1860-1920 as the baseline. Norton compiled data related to functionalities, policies, outputs and the development patterns of the cities. He obtained data about expenditures, revenues, and services offered by in various cities. When comparing the cities, Norton concluded that northeast and north-central cities had extensive facilities and were more concerned with projects aiming at improving the social welfare of the people than the young south and southwest cities.
There were three sources of data used in the present analysis: the data from the international city management association (ICMA) consisted of the services and demographic components of 35 cities like Chicago, New York, Cleveland, Philadelphia San Francisco, Detroit from old and Houston, Miami, Denver, San Diego, Portland and Virginia Beach from younger cities. Also, the telephone interviews on senior officers in each city. The data analyzed the population of the towns, services offered, expenditures and revenues. The data used is the same but different year 1991. The obtained data influence the findings because it contained all the components used by Norton like services, expenditure, and revenue.
The findings conform to Norton’s conclusions. According to Norton, old industrial cities of the northeast and north-central cities offered extensive services when compared to younger towns of south and southwest. The older spend more on public works like residential solid waste collection, recycling, inspections and issue of permits are 100% provided in old towns compared to 95 %,79%95%, and 95% respectively in younger cities. Public works as a service are the best rates at 87% in old cities and 82% in younger cities. Public safety, health, and human services support functions and education is all best rated in old cities than younger cites. The economic development and parks and recreation are only services rated best in younger cities than old cities. The per capita of old cities is higher compared to newer cities reflecting more expenditure on the old cities. The older city for instant New York is highly populated with density 22755 and budget 28224624729 when compared with Houston younger city with a population density of 2846 with a budget of 1037571848.
Old cities allocate more funds to the education sector and administrative overheads in contrary to younger cities that spend more on parking administrative expenses. The expenditure level is higher in old cities due to more social services rendered to the public when compared to younger towns. The dependency ratio in old cities is higher than on the young cities. The old cities a large portion of the revenue comes from government aid, miscellaneous receipts, income tan, and commercial tax and the remaining part is from residential tax, sales tax which is a small percentage of the total revenue. On the other hand, younger cities large portion of the income is from residential, commercial and sales taxes, state aid miscellaneous revenues, and while the other part of the revenue comes from income tax.Generally, expenditure levels are increasing in old cites as revenue decline while in young cities both expenditure and revenue levels are going up.
Young cities are reducing the income tax rate to encourage employment while old cities charge a lower fee to improve service delivery and accessibility. In ancient cities, there are boards of correction, but in young cities, there is no even one board. The numbers of immigrants to old cities are elderly due to better social services while young cities are receiving more youths in search of jobs for personal development. Ancient cities are highly populated, and expansion is not possible while younger cities have less population, hence room for growth and expansion. There is a need both old and young cities to improve on social, economic, political, legal and technological aspects.