The first excerpt is from the Peloponnesian war that happens in (431-404 BCE). The warring factions were two ancient cities of Greece: Athens and Sparta. The expert is extracted from the book The Peloponnesian War written by Thucydides. The two towns were predominantly the leaders of the opposite. The war engulfed the entire Greek world. The source is a historical source and provides information about the intrigues that were playing out during ancient Greece. The excerpt tells more about the art of war and how fighting factions often used different tactics to acquire power. One thing that we can learn from this ancient period is that the conflict was a common phenomenon of the time. First, the cities were fighting to have control of Greece yet at the same time they were supposed to follow the rules of the nations. The lack of adherence to the law of the nation seems to have been the order of the day.
The second excerpt reflects on the Sallust that ran between the (86-35 BCE). The author Sabine from Amiternum acted against Cicero and Milo as tribune in 52. He was expelled from Senate in 50 and the travails of continues. The title of the source that the excerpt comes from is “The War with Catiline. The war with Jugurtha” this is source focuses on the theme of the moral and the political decline of Rome. The author seeks to use historiography to present the events to the period. Therefore the source can be said to be a typographical source. The cause still provides information about how ancient Rome was trying to dominate society yet at the same time it was experiencing a severe decline. It is evident that the ancient medieval history focused on analyzing the event from a personal point of view. Each author would pick an issue and use their experience and interpretation to explain the problem.
The emergence of Christianity dates back to about only 200 years ago after the alleged coming of “Messiah” however the history of Christianity is often traced back to the Davidian kingdom. The emergence and the rise of Christianity set the stage for the breakdown of the religious practices and outlook of the people of the ancient world: Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and Romans.
The period before Christianity was marked by religious practices that were focused either on the worship of many gods or the offering of sacrifices to these gods. A case in example is the Egyptians who practices polytheistic and also concentrate on sacrifices. The same was the case in Mesopotamia and even Rome. However, during the time of the emergence of Christianity, there was a focus on one God who did not need the offering of sacrifices rather the sacrifice of the heart. Christianity argued that Jesus had died on the cross and taken away all the sins of men and thus people were not to offer sacrifices anymore. It is evident that Christianity took over the world and heralds the end of the worship of many Gods.
However, Christianity did not necessarily mean that there was a total breakdown of these ancient worlds. The practices of these societies might have disintegrated due to many other reasons apart from Christianity. The emergence of other powers around the world and their influence might have led to the political demise of these ancient societies. The sudden political passing eventually led to the decline of religious practices. Therefore, the statements might have some truth in it, but it does not focus on all the reasons that led to the demise of ancient societies.
From the understanding of the historical records, Christianity played an essential role in the demise of ancient societies. As the organizations experienced a catastrophic decline, Christianity found a way of offering hope to the people that were suffocated by some of the practice foster by some of these ancient societies. Therefore, Christianity was a force in creating some of the changes that occurred during the classical period.
Rolfe J.C. and John T Ramesy. The War with Catiline. The War with Jugurtha Sallust
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: A Brief History. Boston: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.
Thucydides, The Pelopponesian War (New York: Random House, 1951), p. 331