The fourth industrial revolution is also known as there (4IR) is an era that is occupied by significant industrial changes and technological advancements. This is the era where people experience artificial intelligence and autonomous cars. The first industrial revolution started in the 18th century and from that time, numerous ideas have changed. The fourth industrial revolution is occupied by numerous characteristics that are different from their experiences within the initial stages. One of the most common characteristics is the fusion of technology that has formed a visible line between digital spheres, physical and biological spheres (World Economic Forum, 2016, 4). This era of the industrial revolution is accompanied by numerous changes known as a cyber-physical system. The emergence of technology has marked the breakthrough of different fields including artificial intelligence, quantum physics, and biotechnology. Internet, as well as industrial manufacturers of nanotechnology, are some of the basic examples that have been witnessed through this period. Different scientists have called this age to be the second age and the new technological advancement age which reflects the artificial intelligence and digitalization of the world. The whole economy has changed broad width advancement in biological ideas seen at different eras. Despite the many positives that come with the fourth revolution, it also presents many otherchallenges and disadvantages that it presents to the people (Carvalho, Chaim, Cazarini, and Gerolamo, 2018, 672). Some of the positives associated with it include the transformation of the entire production system as well as their management and governance. It has also changed the way security is viewed from the beginning and when it was done physically and on an annual basis up to the time that security has become more advanced for the layman to understand. Emerging technology such as artificial intelligence and robot have created unemployment and has come with numerous disadvantages that have been mentioned in various forums. It is these disadvantages that make the fourth wave of industrial revolution an idea that is still not accepted by everyone depending on how they are viewing it. This paper will aim to look at the ideas behind the fourth industrial evolution and the best changes that it has involved.

Aims of this research

The following are the main aims of this research.

  • To identify the distinctions that exist in the fouthrevolution and the previous development industrial revolution
  • To highlight the positives that come as a result of the adaptation of the 4th and the impact that it has had on government administration
  • To show improvement that public administration has undergone through as a result of the 4th industrial revolution
  • To demonstrate the development that has already taken place as a result of the 4th industrial revolution and how it has transformed businesses and business operations.
  • To show how public administration contacts can incorporate the developments in 4th industrial revolution into its operation to benefit the public as a whole
  • To illustrate some of the disadvantages that comes in the fourth industrial revolution and how it has influenced the culture of the population


Objectives of the research

The following objectives will act as guidelines in conducting this research

  • to identify the current development and some of the recent strategies in the 4th industrial revolution
  • To show some of the cases of successful implementation of the fourth industrial revolution in public sector
  • To identify the impact of water distribution in the government and public administration
  • Some of the weaknesses and disadvantages that comes as a result of the 4th district advancement in technology
  • To highlight some of the ideas that are likely to take place shortly when it comes to the future of the 4th industrial revolution
  • To show how to prevent the disadvantages that come about with the 4th industrial revolution.


Research hypothesis

The basis of this research is that the 4thindustrial revolution has come with numerous advantages in public administration and have led to massive success in this sense. However, the 4th industrial revolution has come under massive criticism as a result of the many dangers that are posed to the public. The revolution comes with automation of machines making many people lose their employment while continuously promoting the efficiency of the industries. The following hypothesis has been developed in helping to solve the problems in this study.

H01: By efficiently implementing the features of the 4th industrial revolution, various governments and public administrators can benefit massively from the opportunities created by the advancement in technology, thereby creating efficiency and effectiveness in the government.


H02: Despite the many advantages that come with the 4th industrial revolution, the fast-paced changes makes it difficult for the people to adjust to the changes leading to others losing their jobs and businesses.


Research questions

The following research questions have been developed to guide the conduction of this research to create a focus on the themes within the questions.

  • What are some of the recent development that has come as a result of the 4th industrial revolution?
  • What are some of the benefits of that the 4th revolution has on the administration and the governmental institutions?
  • How can the government make maximum use of the 4th industrial revolution to serve the people in a better way?
  • What has the government done to ensure that the impacts of the 4th revolution are not felt negatively around the people?
  • What does the future hold for the 4thindustrial revolution in terms of business operations and governance?



The significance of this research

This research has numerous significance in various academic institutions as well as the public sectors. Through studying the impact of the 4th industrial revolution and how these changes took place, it becomes easier to fit into the system and make maximum use of these changes in the set. The research will help gain an understanding of the application of modern technologies in management and public administration. Through studying the operations of the 4th industrial revolution, the student can understand the issues within the United Arab Emirates and other colleges that are within the Middle East. This research can help society as a whole to contribute to the success of the country by making full use of the new ideas of the fourth industrial revolution. Four countries that have been effective in engaging with the citizens, several technologies within the fourth industrial revolution can even improve on the interaction thereby allowing the citizens to air their views and participate fully in the government operations.


Literature review

This section will address some of the most common literature that addresses the changes that the Industrial revolution has undergone. The industrial revolution has gone through numerous stages, each with distinctive features. Historical Perspective of the industrial revolution is important while addressing continuous changes over time. The first industrial revolution took place from the beginning of the 18th century up to the later stages of the eighteenth century. According to (Romero et al., 2016, 29), this era of the industrial revolution was mainly witnessed in Europe and two significant parts of North America. It was a time when the agrarian revolution that took place with various rural societies starting to build industries. The changes through the time could allow the people to adjust with the demands in the society (Liu, 2017, 5)At the time, textile and iron industries were the main components of development together with steam engines that were major parts of the industrial revolution. When it comes to the second industrial revolution, it started from the year 1870 and ended before the first world war in the year 1914 (Colombo, Karnouskos, Kaynak., Shi, and Yin, 2017, 6). This second revolution was mainly marked by the massive growth of industries as well as the expansion of the steel industry and electricity. Electric power was discovered at this time and was mainly used to increase production that benefits the people and improves the growth in theindustries. Several technological advancements could be noted during this time including photographs, telephones and light bulbs. When it comes to the third industrial revolution, this was the beginning of the digital age. Digital revolution involved advancement in technology where people moved from analog electronics two devices that were operated using digital means. This area was witnessed during the 1980s after early 2000 according to (Jones, and Pimdee, 2017, 4). The major advancement during this age was the invention of the internet and the increased use of personal computers together with information communication and technology. The fourth industrial revolution expanded on the digital revolution that represents how technology can be embedded in a society and even form part of the human body. The fourth industrial revolution was the beginning of a technological breakdown that was applied in making artificial intelligent robots and the use of quantum computers (Leydesdorff, 2018, 16). Numerous characteristics are crucial in describing this era.  It is also occupied by numerous other interventions including autonomous vehicles (Morrar, Arman, and Mousa, 2017, 12).

Numerous resources were part of these revolutions. Oil and electricity facilitated these programs has allowed mass production throughout the second and first industrial revolution. Information technology and electronic production were the reasons behind the success or the third industrial revolution with numerous ideas working perfectly. The industrial revolution is in many ways seen to be different and is a separate event that allows for a series of events that builds on innovation and advanced forms of production.

The major infects of the 4th industrial revolution on institutions and economies cannot be quantified because of the challenges that it has also brought to the same development and economy. The transformation of people’s interaction and work have also given new dimensions to defining an economic success that is different from the traditional measures of stock (Morrar, Arman, and Mousa, 2017, 12). Understanding new technologies are key to describing the potential of the 4th industrial revolution and their critical disruptions that it has cost nations including developing countries. Large portions of the world are connected through the social media platform that the line of the changes around the globe in terms of information management. There are new forms of competition that are brought about by marketing platforms and sales distribution strategies that improves the price and quality of goods and services in a way that’s different from the first and second industrial revolution. The customers and closer are likely to get involved in the supply and distribution contribution (Eberhard et al., 2017, 4). The business environment is also part of these changes in the production of quality and organization innovation.

Just like the other revolutions that came before, the fourth industrial revolution has had the potentials of raising the global income and have improved upon the quality of life of the people around the globe. These ideas have gained popularity as numerous other people are joining the revolution (Hirschi, 2017, 1). The main concern has been the fact that not everyone can afford the digital platform to explore the potential something for the revolution. For those who cannot afford them, they are left in the revolution and cannot access the digital world. Technology has also made it possible for numerous services and other products to change how people operate and conduct their personal lives. Currently, it has easy to book a flight and to buy a product that includes online and make payment online as well. People can play games online and watch movies online that happens on the 4th industrial revolution (Prisecaru, 2016, 57).

The future innovations and technology are likely to expound on what has already been started as the initial stages of the fourth revolution. There are numerous ideas that will change in the future especially those that deals with the different aspects of life such as communication and transport are likely to drop in cost so that people can easily afford them. This changing also influences the global supply and the other lines of the chainchanngings. It is expected that the cost of the trade is likely to go down without the other ideas not being driven effectively. Despite all these changes, the fourth industrial revolution is likely to results in numerous disadvantages including inequality and the apparent changes within the market concerning the supply and demand (Hyun Park, Seon Shin, Hyun Park, and Lee, 2017, 935). Automation of services is likely to take over the industry and the entire labor sector. Many workers will be displaced by machines that way operate efficiently making companies not to use physical labor. Displacement of workers by guided by technology that depends on the reward for safety jobs. It is not possible to foresee a scenario where there is a combination of are a weakness in technology together with constant criticism.

The measure and speed the experienced changes that come from the fourth industrial revolution have been a concern too many third world countries that cannot keep up with this pace (Chung, and Kim, 2016,9). This is because the changes come with the shifts in our knowledge and changes in wealth are massive (Waidner, and Kasper, 2016, 1303). Being knowledgeable about the changes and the speed at which they are also taking place and the changes that have seen the technological riches and advancements in knowledge is likely to benefit those who are embracing it.



Research methodology


This is qualitative research that will make use of the participants from the institutions that are involved in public administration and the fourth industrial revolution. The research will have opinions from the powerful people in the government as well as other industries so that they can describe the changes that they have noted within their last century. The researcher will ask questions related to the fourth industrial revolution so that findings and conclusions can be arrived at. This research will use a basic survey questionnaire in getting the answers from the prominent people who make full use of the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution. This including artificial intelligence and autonomous cars. The reason for choosing this research methodology is because it is efficient and effective for this type of situation, especially in qualitative data. The survey questionnaire is best suited for collecting first-hand information from the participants. Research methodology applies to the best strategies that can give the most valid data (Creswell, 2013). The most common strategies for data collection also corresponds to the standards of research that have been set (Cassell, and Symon, 2004; Crotty, 2003).


Research participants

This research will have participants from the technology industries and those who are aware of these revolutions from the first, second, third and now the fourth industrial revolutionary changes. The participants will be recruited from the organizations within the study area in the United Arab Emirates. The main leading companies in technology and those who have been the successful implementation of new ideas such as autonomous cars together with artificial intelligence will be the main participants in the research. These participants will provide the best understanding of the data used in the progress of research. The participants will also be recruited by giving the company’s officials informed consents so that the participants can be allowed formally to participate in the research. This study will use the population that is total to 20 people. Out of them, all of them will have an opportunity to fill the form as required.


Data collection

Data collection procedures will be done by administering questionnaires to the participants so that they can answer the basic questions. The questions will be measuring the impacts of the 4th industrial revolution on governments, businesses and other sectors. Observation will also form a key part of the interview questionnaire at it will be part of the data collection procedure as well. The researcher will use observation to gauge the behavior of the participants. Observation will allow the researcher to verify if the answers given by that participants are right or wrong. The questions will include both open and closed sent and are covering ideas of industrial revolution.



This part will address the results of the fourth industrial evolution from the literature and the available data. The first finding is that the first industrial revolution was witnessed in the 1760s when the first steam engine was brought about in the world and people mechanized sound of their operations in the industries, and it helped those who were part of the ideas (Bublick, 2018, 3). It was this invention of the steam engine that allowed industries to transition from the mechanical farming in revolutionizing to a society where manufacturing processes to take place. The transition involved the use of cold that provided energy together with the train providing the means of transport (Gaspar, Julião, and Cruz, 2018, 330). Steel industries together with textile which are dominant when it came to employment and value of the output.Technological advancements have made it easier to perform numerous activities with less effort. Machines scanner work as they have to get existing like human beings. Industrial evolution has taken center stage of the world economic growth and has been a massive part of countries that are developing.

The concept involves a combination of numerous technologies that are part of the changing operations in the world through work and interaction. Many scholars that technological revolutions that have blurred the lines between the digital world biological spheres and the physical world. This shows that the fourth industrial revolution brought about new technologies such as individual intelligence and autonomous vehicles together with the use of the internet to change the way humans operate physically (Li, Hou, and Wu, 2017, 626). Voice-activated assistance together with the facial identification has been a massive part of the ever-changing technological changes have also learned how companies and governments operate and therefore leading to numerous social changes that are even similar to the common industrial prevalence and revolutions. The first three industrial revolutions spearheaded the policies of technology and partnerships that enabled the industrial interventions and technology to sustain the operations and fundamentals of society. This could be witnessed in the first industrial revolution which began in Britain in the year 1760 (Dao et al., 2017, 1280). Numerous ideas and collaborations supported this intervention making them some of the most recognizable interventions to date (Xing, Bo, and Tshilidzi, 2017, 9; Salem, 2017, 66). Creation of factories for significant success as a result of the first industrial revolution in Britain and other countries that could adopt this process. What was witnessed in the second revolution was roughly a century after the first revolution was initiated. It came about when there was massive mass production in the industries such as steel industries oil industries and electricity. Some of the most notable items include bulbs telephones and engines that were used for internal combustion. The introduction of the semiconductors and personal computers marry the third industrial revolution easier as many people who would simplify the work that they were doing.


Numerous companies and industries that operate on transport and retail, as well as banking systems, are always looking towards incorporating new technologies into reality (Savić, 2018, 6). The recent development in 3-D printing, as well as artificial intelligence, have been incorporated successfully into various companies (Loureiro, 2018, 740). One of the studies that happened in the year 2017 by the European patent office as realized that numerous patent industries have filed for the growth of 4th industrial revolution and it is massively improving the available rate which is 54% after every three years (de Lorenzo et al., 2018, e45658). Technology together with digital evolution has been intertwined with numerous businesses and social media to affect the economic lives of the people. This applies well trying to separate technology from non-technical ideas and becoming increasingly redundant (Tarabasz, Selaković, and Abraham, 2018, 231). Companies and government institutions are also struggling to meet the increasing demands within the fourth industrial revolution especially those that deal with technological changes. The united states have Silicon Valley where technology is developing at the rate that even the technological policymakers cannot keep up with. There is always the abuse of hunger wear companies on how to borrow literacy skills for them to keep up with the scales of the competitors. Many companies lack the skills to interpret and analyze data successfully become part of the increasing 4thindustrial revolution as required. Studies have shown that artificial intelligence will be eliminating the jobs that people are doing. This means that people have to make the changes and also be part of the continuous evolution. The creation of demand for jobs also comes with the need for new skills and expertise that has always been a warning to diverse economies (Arntz, Gregory, Lehmer, Matthes, and Zierahn, 2017, 3). High skilled workers are always paid higher than the rest of the workers were left behind. I do not want to change with the new techniques. By the year 2018, there was a report on investment that found numerous billionaires that have been part of the breakthrough in innovations. These billionaires have been a massive part of the evolution that has taken place. Examples are those that are involved with the evolution of Microsoft and other powerful media platforms such as Facebook. This is the millionaires of today, and they are setting the pace for other employees or employers who are also participating in these innovations (Kamal, Saad, and Kok, and Hussain, 2018, 189).

Currently, people are standing and the brink of technology for evolutions that have formed a fundamental part of our lives. These evolutions are changing the way we live work and relate with other people (Shin et al., 2018, 347). It is a scope that is complex and as transformed every aspect of humankind. It is impossible to tell how things will unfold in the future even though it is clear that responses to such complexities have to be complex and integral part of the global stakeholders. The public and private sector together with other academicians have to be involved in this evolution in a way that it does not affect others.

“…People are standing on the brink of a technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another. In its scale, scope, and complexity, the transformation will be unlike anything humankind has experienced before. We do not yet know just how it will unfold, but one thing is clear: the response to it must be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders of the global polity, from the public and private sectors to academia and civil society. The First Industrial Revolution used water and steam power to mechanize production. The Second used electric power to create mass production. The Third used electronics and information technology to automate production. Now a Fourth Industrial Revolution is building on the Third, the digital revolution that has been occurring since the middle of the last century. It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres…” (Shin et al., 2018, 347).

Some of the reasons for transformation are mainly because of their relations experienced within their study distribution and the arrival of the 4th district 1. The speed of this breakthroughs can present a massive challenge to the people cannot adjust to the changes. It is crucial to note that these changes are affected every aspect of the country including security. There are several reasons why the transformations that are witnessed today do not necessarily coincide with the progression from the third industrial revolution. Instead, it represents the arrival of a distinct revolution which is the fourth one. This revolution is accompanied by the speed and the scope of different other items that are not part of the contribution. The speed of this breakthrough does not have any historical precedents and does not relate in any way shape or form of the types reformation. When people make a comparison with the previous changes, the fourth revolution is evolving in a manner that can be described exponentially, and it is not linear like the other previous changes. It also affects other aspects of life and not only the industries. The exponential growth has seen the transformation of management government and production.

There are numerous reasons why the changes and transformations that are witnessed today do not represent a prolongation of the first second and third industrial revolution. There is a possibility that numerous people are connected with mobile devices and have an unprecedented power of processing and storage of information. These possibilities also multiply the emergence and the breakthrough of artificial intelligence with robots and other ideas. Artificial intelligence surrounds everyone as we can witness self-driving cars and rooms that are operating on a virtual basis with no assistance needed. The software is also available that can successfully translate numerous investments for the people. Some of the most important provinces that have been witnessed are within their artificial intelligence. And there are eight years, the computer I have gained the power to process the vast majority of the data and have allowed for the discovery of different algorithms that can predict the culture and interests of the people. Fabrication of digital technologies is allowing for interaction with the biological world. This is what makes the fourth industrial revolution unique and different from the other revolutions that have gone in the past. Differently, bringing together a combination of designs and manufacturing materials are to pioneer the symbiosis of various organisms and bodies. People can reproduce this organism and multiply the production in a way that it can continuously sustain life.



Just like the other steps of the revolution that were witnessed previously, the fourth industrial revolution has witnessed a massive change at a global scale that has affected the income levels and is supposedhelp the people by improving the life of the people. Currently, there are those who have massively gained from these changes. These are mainly people who can access and afford digital technology. Those who can access the digital world find it easier to produce goods and services at a rate that is more efficient and pleasant to their lives. They are also able to get employment online. I do not have to go to physician offices to look for employment. People are also able to order cabs and can book flights online. Playing and watching films have also been made easier as it can be done remotely without having to necessarily walk to the theatre to enjoy this service is the way it used to be in the past. In the future, different other technological innovations are expected to lead other changes with acceptable long-term gains in production efficiency. It is expected that transportation cost and communication will effectively drop together with the cost for logistics and supply chains. Because of trade, there is the need to have the new markets that will be able to drive the economy at the same time; these opportunities come with economic risks(Romero et al., 2016, 29). This is a procedure where there is the potential of inequality especially when it comes to disruption of the labor market when automation of machines will take place fully in the economy. It is predicted that there will be complete mismanagement and a complete drop out of their employers. Most of the workers will be displaced by the machines that will excavate the gap between the return of labor. Conversely, it will be possible to displace numerous workers by technology increasing unemployment and inequality (Colombo, Karnouskos, and Kaynak. Shi, and Yin, 2017, 6).

In the future, it is expected that talent will be more important than capital and will represent a crucial factor especially when it comes to production. This was talented are likely to succeed more, and they are likely to get employment more than those who have the capital. Eventually, it will also give rise to the job market that has continuously been segregated into two sets of payment. Currently there those who are paid lowly who belong to the low skill segment others who are paid highly who belong to the high skill segment. When this continues in the future, it is likely to increase the tension that exists in society. Inequality is a crucial factor to the fourth industrial revolution despite not being a key concern in the economic sense. Inequality represents a concern even currently during the initial stages of the fourth industrial revolution. Some of the largest benefits of the innovations have been the people who provide intellectual capital and physical capital for investment (Jones, and Pimdee, 2017, 4). This also involves shareholders who contribute massively to the increasing gap in wealth between the people who depend on capital and those who depend on the labor. It is crucial to in having the best strategies in technology and why the income of numerous countries has been stagnating for a long time. It is also responsible for the decrease in the economy in the majority of the countries that have a high income (Leydesdorff, 2018, 16). This is because the demand for highly skilled worker’s museum while workers who have less education have been decreasing. This is, therefore, the start of a job market that has a strong demand in both high and low hands cannot balance between the two. This is the same reason why many workers have become more disillusioned at they’re fearful for the income of the children and the future. It is likely that the future of their children is likely to study night. It is this same reason why the middle class in all around the globe are experiencing dissatisfaction and unfairness when it comes to pervasive sense experiences. An economy where a winner takes all gives very limited access for the people who belong to the middle class, and this has become the receipt for democratic dereliction.Discontent among the workers can also be brought about by the pervasiveness that exists in digital technology as well as the dynamics of the information technology brought about by social media. More than 40% of the population around the globe have been using social media to connect and learn about information. The direction will not be the same in an ideal world where an opportunity for cross-cultural and cohesion are different. The social media people create the propaganda that is unrealistic, and expectations that constitute to a continuance loss of opportunities and ideologies that spread are spread.


The impact on business

One of the underlying ideas is that there is a conversation about that senior business manager and the continuous acceleration of innovative technology that is always disrupting the hard drivers of the economy. Discontinuous development has been a challenge to even the best people who are more and well informed in the operations of a company. When it comes to the side of the suppliers, several industries see the improvement and the introductions that are helping them to have new ways of serving the needs and value for the chains. Day’s disruption from the competitors whoever accesses to digital technology and platforms where they can research and develop their market. Through technology, it is easier to disrupt and individual company through searching on their market and what they do to do their service. There is a massive shift when it comes to the demands that I like little poker and growing transparency with consumer engagement. The new pattern of the consumers is increasingly becoming complicated as most of them operate using mobile phones that have recently become a force in the market. One of the critical developments that have enabled these platforms to perform is the demand and supply that have disrupted the culture and structure of the industries.

There is a significant trend in the development of platforms that have been enabled by technology that uses a combination of demand and supply to disrupt the existing structures in the industry. These include those that are within their sharing of the economy between the market supplies. Technology has enabled people to be suppliers and consumers of the goods at the same time. This platforms and trends have made it easier for those who have smartphones add data to create new ways of consumer goods as well as the services. Additionally, they are lowering the barriers that exist in businesses where individuals can create wealth and alter their personal and professional environment. These platforms are also available and are increasingly becoming popular multiplying their new services that are available. Services such as laundry and shopping as well as hacking have emerged to be crucial in recent times. Does worrying holding them have a massive advantage in technology especially if they can successfully be incorporated into their operations.

The four main effects of the 4th industrial revolution have been on the business expectation on customers and product enhancement through collaboration and innovation. Whether they’re customers or owners of businesses drive the economy, they have to improve their customers that they are serving. Physical goods can also be enhanced by the capacitors and capabilities of digital platforms and data-based experiences. Assets require new platforms of collaboration thereby speeding up their disruption processes that is coming about by the fourth industrial revolution. The emergence of the platforms that operate on a global scale means that culture and other organizational forms how to be taught about as they operate differently (Taraba’s, Selaković, and Abraham, 2018, 232). From an overall perspective, they have been I must leave inexorable shift from the third industrial revolution that was mainly simple digitalization to the universe that has been using technologies within the fourth industrial revolution. This shifts in operation are making their companies think and react in the way they operate their businesses. However, the domain model of business operation will remain the same as executive and executives have to change the environment and challenge all the operational values thereby proving to be relentless and continuously innovating.

The impact of the fourth industrial revolution on government

As the physical and digital world continuously improves based on the newly available digital platforms, there is an increased engagement that the citizens have with the government. This is because they can voice their opinions to the government executives directly and coordinates various efforts so that they are heard by the public authorities. The government has also gained new technologies that have empowered their control of the population. Also, there is massive concern about by the available surveillance systems that can enhance the control of infrastructure on a digital platform. However, the administrators have to feel the pressure that comes with these changes especially when it comes to the public agreement and policy-making procedures. The main role of the government is to conduct policies and source out the new methods that can be used to decentralize or from the people (Eberhard et al., 2017, 4). Technology is making it impossible for the government to control everyone, especially what they think about what they need and what they see. The people used the technology to air their voices and to give opinions even those that the government does not want them to hear or see. Ultimately, the public authorities have to adapt and find ways that they can survive continue to maintain the power of our people. If they can effectively embrace a wild that continuously has the change, they are subjecting transparency and still maintain the competitive advantage (Liao et al., 2017, 12434). It also shows that the government has to evolve with the changes because if they do not, it will continuously be a problem.

In the future, this will be real when it comes to regulation and policy-making procedures within the public sector. Different decision-making procedures were involved in the second industrial revolution. At the time, decision-makers had the time to study various development on issues that they can use to respond to the issues and farm policies that can regulate the people effectively. This whole process was also designed to be a mechanism that is linear and follows an approach from top to bottom (Morrar, Arman, and Mousa, 2017, 12). However, this approach is no longer applicable, and the evolutions involved with the fourth industrial revolution is changing the world at a pace where the legislators and regulators have to be part of. They have to be able to co-operate and change with these changes. Within a public institution, it is not easy to have ideas that are accepted by everyone. This means that there must be a common ground beauty of the people who are feeling involved or taking part in a policy-making decision. Preserving the interests of the public while also getting the support of technology is an idea that is complex. Just like the private sector, the government has been creating platforms that can adapt with the new and fast-changing environment thereby inventing themselves so that they can truly understand the regulations the way they are supposed to be. They do so with the collaboration of other regulatory agencies that are closely related to the civil societies and the people as well.


In conclusion, the fourth industrial revolution which is characterized by speed differences and complexity of our transformation. This revolution is different from what has been witnessed in other previous revolutions like the second and the third one. It has transformed the public administration and government operations. Nonetheless, there are opportunities and challenges presented by the fourth industrial revolution. The researchers can understand how these changes can be managed so that their impacts are minimized. Numerous opportunities and challenges come with the fourth industrial revolution. This comes as a result of the movement and the changes from mechanization of production that was done in the first industrial revolution to the mass production that was witnessing the second and one automatic production scene in the third revolution. The standard of living has been improving massively with this changes as people, or longer have to depend on mechanization to survive or the necessity to have mass production. Automation has improved the living standards and has helped people to realize how they can achieve their dreams with less effort. The capability of technology experience in the fourth industrial revolution has been the latest revelation with the potential to awaken even greater improvements in all aspects of life. Computerization has sums together all the other previous revolutions bringing together what is acceptable by people all around the world. Conversely, these changes come with challenges and variations that are most people may not have been prepared for.

The fourth industrial revolution has been accompanied by inequality and numerous cases of insecurity including cyber concerns and various obstacles faced by countries to harness these potentials. Cybersecurity and ethical issues have been the main obstacles towards full employment and implementation of 4th industrial revolution and changes in most countries. Technological advancement and transformation in science around the globe have created an equal effect in societies and institutions. Numerous economies have been destructed because of the faith that people put in these changes. Despite the changes that they have brought to the world, this complexity may fail to realize the full potential of the fourth revolution (Hirschi, 2017, 1).

Ethical considerations

Academic research has to follow several codes of conduct and ethics that have been defined by the institution. These codes are used in guarding the validity and ensuring that the work given is accurate and is a true representation of the data that is collected. This research will allow the author to collect information from the participants and the researcher have to follow this ethical consideration in academics. The ethical considerations include privacy of the participants, the anonymity of the participants, data validity and accuracy, time management from the researcher among others. When it comes to privacy, all the participants will take part in this research have to be protected, and their identities should not be given out. The name of the participants for the information should not be given out under any circumstances unless necessary. Time management is a crucial ethical consideration that the researcher has to take note of. A researcher has to maintain time especially because the participants have their duties to attend to. Anonymity is important because the participants will not be referred to in work by their names. Data accuracy and validity are crucial in research as they work given must be valid that can be proven. This means that even if the work goes through peer review, it will prove to be accurate because it was daring to the ethical concern of data validity.



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