The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do

The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do

Summary:  

In the article The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do by Johannes W De Jong, Louk JMJ Vanderschuren and Roger AH Adan, high sugar consumption results in diseases such as obesity. Specifically, the authors note that excess sugar results from sugar additives to foods. The authors also emphasize the addiction effects of dopamine released when people consume foods with high sugar content. The researchers use rodents to investigate the effects of “binge” on the human body. They show the effects of long-term high sugar consumption such as inhibition of metabolism which results in many sugar related disorders. Also, the authors explain the short term and long term effects of sugar on the brain.

Part 1: Analyze each article and then answer questions 1-8 below.

  1. Source. Even if you locate information in a database, the articles can still be from newspapers or periodicals. Is this article from a newspaper or periodical? Is it a peer reviewed journal article?

The article is from a periodical. It is a peer-reviewed journal article and therefore a credible source for use in research.

  1. Author. Who is the author? What qualifications does the author possess? (research this on the internet) Is the author authority in his or her field? Have they published extensively on this topic? Are they affiliated with a reputable university or institution?

The article was written by Johannes W De Jong, Louk JMJ Vanderschuren and Roger AH Adan. Likewise, Johannes W De Jong has a doctorate in molecular and cell biology and works in the University of California. Louk JMJ Vanderschuren works in the department of veterinary medicine in the Utrecht University. On the other hand, Roger AH Adan is a neurosurgeon but currently works in the department Translational Neuroscience at the University Medical Center Utrecht. All these authors have published several works on the topic of dietary. Ideally, they all hold senior positions in the departments which gives them authority in the field of nutrition.

  1. Timeliness. When was this site first published online? When it was last updated? Are its argument and information still timely?

The article was first published online in June 2016. However, it has not been updated since publication. The arguments and information in the article are still valid today.

  1. Evidence. Where does the author’s evidence come from? Does the evidence adequately support the author’s claims?

The evidence provided by the authors comes from books and scholarly articles. The evidence adequately supports the authors’ claims supported by the experiments.

  1. Bias. Can you detect particular biases of the author? How do the author’s biases affect his or her arguments and conclusions?

The authors are biased towards low sugar consumption. The bias leads to the conclusion that too much sugar leads to the deterioration of brain cells.

  1. References. Are references provided for information given on the site? If so, who considers these references reputable?

The authors have provided references for information obtained from other sources. Most of the sources are books and peer-reviewed scholarly articles which are considered reputable by the American Psychological Association.

  1. Links. Are there links to additional information? Do the links work? Is the linked information reliable? Do these links offer further insight into the author’s biases?

The article contains links to sites which have additional information to the topic under discussion. Consequently, the links offer further insight into the biases of the authors. For instance, the link to a news post about junk foods adds more on the inclination of the authors towards additive sugar in foods.

Part 2: After you answer the above questions 1-8 answer the following questions to determine the validity and usefulness of your information.

  1. Should you use this source? If so, how will it support your project? What information will you use from this source and why will you use it?

Since this source is credible, I will use it in my research for the informative speech. The source will support my argument that sugar leads to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The source has data on the correlation between high sugar consumption and depletion of brain cells.

  1. Will your audience find this source credible and persuasive? Why? How will the credibility of the author, his or her research, or the credibility of the site itself assist you in ensuring that the audience believes your research?

The audience will find this source persuasive and credible. The source is a peer-reviewed journal article and is thus reliable. Additionally, the authors have authority in the topic and have carried out other research on the issue of sugar consumption. As a result, their credibility will assist in making the audience believe in my research.

  1. Is the credibility of this source suspect in any way? How?

The credibility of the source is not suspect in any way. It is also a peer-reviewed scholarly article. Therefore, the information contained is reliable and credible.

Halve added sugar in diet to 5%, say, nutritionists

Summary:  

In the article Halve added sugar in diet to 5%, say, nutritionists by Zosia Kmietowicz, people should not consume more than 5% of their daily energy intake as sugar. This effort will reduce obesity in both adults and children as well as minimizing type 2 diabetes which is associated with drinking sweetened beverages. According to his research, Kmietowicz found that high sugar consumption often resulted in tooth decay and high energy intake in the body. His study also linked high sugar drinks with an increase in weight gain in children and the development of type 2 diabetes in both children and adults. Kmietowicz recommended that people should cut sugar consumption and increase fiber intake.

Part 1: Analyze each article and then answer questions 1-8 below.

  1. Source. Even if you locate information in a database, the articles can still be from newspapers or periodicals. Is this article from a newspaper or periodical? Is it a peer reviewed journal article?

The source is a journal article from the British Medical Journal. It is a peer-reviewed journal article and therefore a credible source for use in research.

  1. Author. Who is the author? What qualifications does the author possess? (research this on the internet) Is the author an authority in his or her field? Have they published extensively on this topic? Are they affiliated with a reputable university or institution?

Zosia Kmietowicz is the author of the journal article. She has been a freelance medical journalist and an editor for over thirty years. Her profession and experience give her authority in the field. Kmietowicz is affiliated with the British Medical Journal which is a reputable institution for publishing medical journals.

  1. Timeliness. When this site was first published online? When it was last updated? Are its argument and information still timely?

The article was first published online on July 17th, 2015. The report has not been updated since publication. However, the arguments and information in the article are still timely since the material is less than five years old.

  1. Evidence. Where does the author’s evidence come from? Does the evidence adequately support the author’s claims?

The evidence provided by the authors comes from books and scholarly articles. The author also reviews the sources she uses for her research. The evidence adequately supports the authors’ claims supported by the experiments.

  1. Bias. Can you detect particular biases of the author? How do the author’s biases affect his or her arguments and conclusions?

The authors have a bias against sweetened beverage drinks. She associates the beverage drinks with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  1. References. Are references provided for information given on the site? If so, who considers these references reputable?

The article has references for data collected from the other sources reviewed by the author. The American Psychological Association considers the sources used to be reputable since they are peer-reviewed articles and books published by credible publishers.

  1. Links. Are there links to additional information? Do the links work? Is the linked information reliable? Do these links offer further insight into the author’s biases?

The source links to external sites more information on sugared beverages and their effects. The links work and have reliable data on the impact of sugar on the body. Additionally, the other sites offer more insight into the author’s bias on sweetened beverages.

Part 2: After you answer the above questions 1-8 answer the following questions to determine the validity and usefulness of your information.

  1. Should you use this source? If so, how will it support your project? What information will you use from this source and why will you use it?

It is necessary to use the source since it contains information relevant to my research. The data on the relationship between consumption of sweetened beverages and obesity will support my argument of weight gain resulting from added sugar. Specifically, I will use the information on obesity and type 2 diabetes resulting from added sugar in my research.

  1. Will your audience find this source credible and persuasive? Why? How will the credibility of the author, his or her research, or the credibility of the site itself assist you in ensuring that the audience believes your research?

The audience will find this source persuasive and credible. The source has been peer reviewed and is thus reliable. Moreover, the author is a credible medical journals writer, and therefore her credibility will play a significant role in convincing the audience that the research is credible.

  1. Is the credibility of this source suspect in any way? How?

The credibility of the source is however suspicious. The author is a freelance writer, and that does not necessarily give her authority in the medical field. Therefore, her credibility casts doubts on the reliability of the source.

Sugar consumption, metabolic disease, and obesity: The state of the controversy

Summary:  

In the article Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy by Stanhope Kimber L, the debate on the effects of too much sugar consumption continues. Kimber believes that excess intake of sugar products results in cardiovascular complications. Similarly, it promotes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sugar contributes to the development of diseases both directly and indirectly. The conditions occur when the sugar is broken down into sucrose and fructose. The fructose overloads the liver resulting in a fatty liver or insulin resistance. The author conducts tests on sugar metabolisms using magnetic resonance tests and posts the findings in the article. She concludes that sugar consumption results in obesity.

Part 1: Analyze each article and then answer questions 1-8 below.

  1. Source. Even if you locate information in a database, the articles can still be from newspapers or periodicals. Is this article from a newspaper or periodical? Is it a peer reviewed journal article?

The article is from a periodical. However, it is a peer-reviewed journal article and therefore a credible source for use in research.

  1. Author. Who is the author? What qualifications does the author possess? (research this on the internet) Is the author an authority in his or her field? Have they published extensively on this topic? Are they affiliated with a reputable university or institution?

The author of the journal article is Stanhope Kimber L. She has a doctorate in nutritional biology. Kimber has published a lot of dietary works. However, she is currently a nutritional biologist at UC Davis.

  1. Timeliness. When this site was first published online? When it was last updated? Are its argument and information still timely?

The article was first published online on 17th September 2015. However, the report has not been updated since publication. The source has been in existence for less than five years and is therefore still timely.

  1. Evidence. Where does the author’s evidence come from? Does the evidence adequately support the author’s claims?

The author cites other sources in her research. The references include books and scholarly articles. The sources used as evidence adequately supports the authors’ claim that high sugar consumption results in obesity and metabolic diseases.

  1. Bias. Can you detect particular biases of the author? How do the author’s biases affect his or her arguments and conclusions?

The author is biased against sugar as the primary cause of obesity in both adults and children. Her bias leads to the conclusion that excess sugar consumption is the leading cause of diabetes.

  1. References. Are references provided for information given on the site? If so, who considers these references reputable?

The author has included references in the article for information obtained from other research studies and books. The American Psychological Association considers the sources used to be reputable since they are peer-reviewed articles and books published by credible publishers.

  1. Links. Are there links to additional information? Do the links work? Is the linked information reliable? Do these links offer further insight into the author’s biases?

The article has links to information from other websites on the relationship between sugar consumption and obesity. The links in the site are working and have reliable data on the effects of sugar on the body. Consequently, the other sites offer more insight into the author’s bias on obesity.

Part 2: After you answer the above questions 1-8 answer the following questions to determine the validity and usefulness of your information.

  1. Should you use this source? If so, how will it support your project? What information will you use from this source and why will you use it?

The source contains information relevant to my research. Therefore, it is paramount to include the reference in my research. Specifically, the correlation between obesity and high sugar consumption will support my argument of weight gain resulting from added sugar. The information required for my study is, therefore, the relationship between sugar consumption and the development of obesity.

  1. Will your audience find this source credible and persuasive? Why? How will the credibility of the author, his or her research, or the credibility of the site itself assist you in ensuring that the audience believes your research?

My audience will find this source to be credible. The source is a peer-reviewed journal article which makes it plausible. Furthermore, the author is a nutritional biologist affiliated with a reputable institution. The author’s credibility will assist in ensuring that the audience believes my speech.

  1. Is the credibility of this source suspect in any way? How?

The credibility of the source is not suspicious in any way. The author is a credible nutritional biologist which gives her authority in the field. She has also conducted extensive research on the area.

 

Works Cited

De Jong, Johannes W., Louk JMJ Vanderschuren, and Roger AH Adan. “The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do.” Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 9 (2016): 118-125. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154616300638

Kmietowicz, Zosia. “Halve added sugar in diet to 5%, say, nutritionists.” BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online) 351 (2015). http://search.proquest.com/openview/1bcd0bb82f491e5397378bb0f756a68e/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2043523

Stanhope, Kimber L. “Sugar consumption, metabolic disease, and obesity: The state of the controversy.” Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences 53.1 (2016): 52-67. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822166/

 

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