Globalization has been a renowned and revered word for a long time. By definition, globalization is the amalgamation of the world based on a single market concept. It involves the interdependence on production, trade, consumerism, and ambiguities in geopolitics. As successful as the concept has been in the past, evolution in defining globalization has been under fire lately. The main reason is due to the corporate agenda under the world order that globalization fosters, and the modern generation is opposed to it. The ‘resistance’ to globalization has been linked to aspects, including culture, religion, geopolitics, political agenda, and people. In turn, it transcends from America to Europe and Asia. Indeed, there is a need to understand the evolution in acceptability of the term ‘globalization’ and determine the way diverse regions conceptualize the ‘resistance.’
The developers had a good intention of developing the term ‘globalization.’ They aimed to join the world as one ‘village’ for humanity sake. As such, the concept strived at the interdependence in production, consumption of goods, and limitless interconnection between countries. The increased share of consumption was geared towards convergent economic thinking as well as techniques to boost developing and developed countries. Consequentially, terminologies and concepts such as internationalization, homogenization, and global economics rose (Williamson, 2018). However, the consequences of globalization have differed in diverse regions.
Globalization is seen to only favor certain economies at the expense of others (Williamson, 2018). According to a theory, Heckscher-Ohlin theory, the comparative basis of countries’ development shows a significant difference in growth, output, and trade rankings (Williamson, 2018). Currently, the divide between the rich and the poor has increased, countries with amiable resources still grapple to catch-up with developed regions, and outputs of the geopolitical divide include civil wars and economic sanctions. The realization is that the inequality and inequity of resources have given birth to 20th and 21st-century revolution to the concept of ‘globalization.’ As determined by Ghemawat (2017), the rising generation, who are the youth, are spearheading the divergence from the global corporate mindset to a delocalized setting since globalization has in the past been linked to the success of a handful of countries at the expense of others. The revolution, as mentioned at the beginning of this paper, stems from aspects of religion, geopolitics, culture, and new ideologies. Therefore, there is a strong reputation for the gradual increase in resistance to globalization.
Globalization Economics: Trumpism and Populism
The current philosophy on globalization is to diverge from the conventional ideology of globalization: to deter immigration policies and refugee asylums in developed countries. In the recent past, Europe and America have become a haven for refugees and immigrants who wish to live better lives or are fleeing from insecurities in their countries. The growing pressures from citizens in the U.S and Europe have instigated the populism and consequently, the famous Trump manifesto (Rodrik, 2018). According to Rodrik (2018), populism has been an exemplified resistance ideology from the conventional definition of globalization. In the 19th century, farmers, commoners, and banking institutions allied to defy the world’s move towards internationalization and the adoption of the ‘corporate’ mindset. The ideologies include political movements against anti-euro and anti-immigration policies from war-torn countries, including Latin America and Europe. The reason was due to increased population and inequity in resource allocation, including job employment to the inhabitants and increased insecurities (Rodrik, 2018). Populism, therefore, grew in acclaim since then.
Populism, as explain Rodrik (2018), are a diverse facet of concepts. In the right-wing, populism is the establishment of localized industries which are not internationalized under the globalization standards. Similar sentiments are shared by Trumpism which is a term that refers to President Donald Trump’s agenda to ‘make America great again.’ The idea is to reimburse the industrialization and manufacturing sector in the U.S, which in the past, under different regimes, were situated in China. It is clear that the relocation of American industries from China back to the U.S was a bold move to improve on its stature worldwide (Rodrik, 2018). Similar aspects have been reported in Europe whereby distributive consequences of industries in Europe have jeopardized localized industries such as those in Britain.
The BREXIT phenomenon that Britain initiated is considered one of the most controversial moves which seek to remove membership from the European Union. The mandate under the European Union is that countries, which serve as members, conglomerate and amalgamate resources and act as one large trade bloc. Initially started by Britain and a few nations, the philosophy of internationalized globalization was observed to be a stepping stone to the improved economic success of the European nations (Rodrik, 2018). However, over the years, it has not been the case, and countries such as Britain have been noted to suffer the most. As a result, President Trump’s support for BREXIT has seen the nation contend for its independence- still ongoing.
Another disruption to the concept of globalization is increased populism and the Trumpism agenda for abolished immigration policies and refugee seeking asylum regulations. At one point, America and other European countries that object to liberalism in immigration laws are seen to continue supporting the deregulation of immigration policies. For example, currently, President Donald Trump is at loggerheads with Congress in a bid to build a wall that would ensure limited immigration of citizens from Latin America (Rodrik, 2018). The move is the geopolitical move which is shared by Britain, Germany, and France. These countries have suffered the most as a result of civil wars, including Syria, Iraq, and Pakistan. Housing immigrants have cost the economies based on security and resource allocation and an attempt to resist the concept of globalization has been stronger than ever. Hence, it can be deduced that the west is grappling with issues of economic localization with improved strategic moves on the limitation of immigration laws to safeguard their citizens.
Cultural and Religious ‘Resistance’ to Globalization
On the left-wing, the crisis that has erupted in the East has brought to light the logical rebuttal to globalization trends. It is good to remember that globalization’s central impact ideology was to segment economic growth irrespective of culture and religion. However, with events of September 9/11 in America, Islamic religion and culture have received negative backlash. The need to dissociate with the rest of the world has been imminent, and Arabian and Islamic regions have been merging to ensure that this is a reality. The reason is on the basis that Islamic countries have been persecuted mainly for the terrorist attacks in the U.S and Europe. The victimization led to the resistance movement by youths of the nations such as the infamous Arab Spring Movement.
Primarily, the resistance to globalization in the Islam nations is due to the segregation on technology and communication backgrounds which saw millions of Muslims squabble for recognition. According to Hassan (2018), the Islam population makes up 20% of the world’s populace, and the consequential inability to recognize itself pressurized the debate on the need to be ‘globalized.’ Moreover, the divisive militancy against Muslims augmented the emergence of multiple centers for Muslims with the need to grow and develop Islam and Islamic identity different from what the world’s concept of globalization entails.
Hassan (2018) indicates that Muslim only recognize their culture, people, and religion through global Ummah. The inability of the world to integrate this highlights the failure in ‘globalization.’ It is the reason globalization was meant to unite people regardless of culture and religion as well as people through economic progression. It is safe to say that the Muslims brothers and sisters have not felt and appreciated this phenomenon or outlook. It is based on the recent events where Islamic communities are continuously victimized and treated as outcasts due to belief and agenda. Muslims share a sense of being as part of the global Ummah. As such, the intensity of this varies across Muslim countries. However, that is not the debate.
Muslim culture and religion beliefs focus on the way people should live with each other. In the pre-conception of globalization, the knowledge that Muslims had was never integrated with daily life. It is segmented in the five pillars of Islam, including hajj, daily prayers and fasting, payment of zakat (welfare tax to the poor), and belief in Allah (Hassan, 2018). The transformation of Islam, as a result of the recent past, has seen the intensified and substantial following of culture and beliefs across the world (Hassan, 2018). The ability to practice religions based on Mohammad’s social and religious teachings has seen the resistance of Islam from the conventional and modern form of globalization.
Instantaneously, the world is giving more attention to culture, belief, religion, and people. The communication and technological techniques that were once limited to other denominations are now fostered in Islam (Hassan, 2018). For example, the dress code and gender relation in Muslim women are structured differently in Islam countries including Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Indonesia. With the ability to practice Islam changes have been made such as permittance of women drivers in Saudi Arabia. However, there are few struggles that Muslims face in the plight of a new globalization trend (Lieven, 2018). They include challenges in hybridity and authenticity concerning views such as terrorism and fundamentalist movements (Hassan, 2018).
Similar events have been witnessed in Hindu practiced regions such as Pakistan, China, and Islamist extremism. In the past, globalization advocated for an integral part in specific directions in political agenda and reformism (Lieven, 2018). For instance, it pushed for democratic republics in Islamic and Hindu regions. However, recent self-actualization of nations that regard Hinduism and Islam have integrated aspects of national interests and liberalism for globalization benefits. Nonetheless, with the evolution in geopolitics, especially in the East, more parties are being formed with varied views on globalization (Lieven, 2018). Undoubtedly, the need for cultural distinctiveness and dedication to national interests away from the westernized influenced globalization arise.
The liberalism that has affected the globalization concept has seen Hinduism and conventional globalization diverge in ideologies. Hindu nationalists have imposed their commitment to cultural freedom and intellectual progress away from the American neo-conservationist movements. These movements are seen only to benefit those allied to America, including politicians. The Hinduism resistance to globalization is becoming one of the most significant forces the east has seen (Lieven, 2018). The conglomeration of east countries has seen the alliance of democracies away from American propaganda. It includes the divergence from the traditional authoritarian dynasties which were ruled through the influence of the west. Despite the continued authoritarian rule, the hereditary dynasties in Hinduism are slowly eroding (Lieven, 2018). The colonial mindset that the east, including China, India, and Pakistan, has been accustomed to is gradually eroding the influence of globalization.
Presently, Hindu reformism has revolved around more politically structured and democratized regimes. It is observed to be extremely new, enforcing the Hindu culture and ways of life (Lieven, 2018). As a result, this has disintegrated the traditional nationalism ideologies from which the modern methods. The mannerisms have resulted in conflicts among the regimes and opposing powers. In turn, it has created a sense of civilization among the people leading to a nationalist movement in improved state nationalism and state power.
Moreover, the liberation moves on how fundamentalists of other religions in the countries including Russian Orthodox, Christianity, and Shiism have reduced (Lieven, 2018). Therefore, it is clear that the Hinduism and Islamic movement away from the general globalization of the corporate agenda and consumerism to cultural globalization. The need to identify each of its cultures and religions has forced Islam and Hindu to oblige to the new movement. Therefore, it is evident that the dominated western way of thinking when it came to globalization after the endo f the Cold War has lost its influence and power in the east. Further, the pathological forms of globalization have diminished the capacity to even influence economic integration within the east with fostered trade benefits in the region.
Globalization, for the longest time, has provided a sense of identity to nations that were willing to follow the accord. These entailed trade benefits, geopolitical sanctity, and integration of cultural and religious advantages. But the benefits have not been equally witnessed and enjoyed. The west has benefited more compared to the east, but the perception is arguable. As such, there are increased testimonies of acknowledgment that there is a need to resist the philosophy of globalization. As documented throughout the paper, the left-side and the right-side of the globe have different battles to win from the claws of globalization. America and Europe are battling with divergence from immigration and refugee laws as well as localization of industries which are common in the east. Conversely, the doctrines of Trumpism and populism have been popular in the west. For example, there is a desire to reduce ‘charitable’ ideas to aid refugees and immigrants which cost the nations’ insecurities and inequitable distribution of resources for the citizens. To the right side, the east is grappling with problems of cultural and religious identities which for the longest time, were not incorporated in the globalization trend. Revolution against the victimization and the persecution of Islamist and Hindu desire for an individualized democratic and nationalistic movement have been cemented. Thus, it is clear, that gradually and impactfully, the resistance to globalization is increasing and its influence has significantly reduced globally.
Williamson, J. (2018). Globalization: The Concept, Causes, and Consequences. Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved from https://piie.com/commentary/speeches-papers/globalization-concept-causes-and-consequences
Ghemawat, P. (2017). Globalization in the Age of Trump. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/07/globalization-in-the-age-of-trump
Rodrik, D. (2018). Populism and The Economics of Globalization. Journal of International Business Policy. Retrieved from https://drodrik.scholar.harvard.edu/files/dani-rodrik/files/populism_and_the_economics_of_globalization.pdf
Hassan, R. (2019). Globalization’s Challenge to Islam. Yale Global Online. Retrieved from https://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/globalizations-challenge-islam
Lieven, A. (2018). Hindu Nationalism: A Reality Check for Liberalism and Globalization. Global Affairs. Retrieved from https://eng.globalaffairs.ru/book/Hindu-Nationalism-A-Reality-Check-for-Liberalism-and-Globalisation-18726
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