The use of police force police always live people injured and others dead. The following factors can be used to reduce the applications of force by police. The exercise of power justified and also a reasonable exercise of power by the police officer. In use for the energy defended, it usually raises a question of whether the police are well trained on how to use force? And in the incidence where the police misuse the power will the department be liable for those force?. If the suspects are found guilty, he should be judged according to his mistake, and the punishment should be equivalent to the error that he has committed( Ariel et al.,2015). The work of the police is to protect the citizens of their country rather than mistreating them. The policy of using deadly force is approved to be applied where necessary and in the case where police have a good reason as to why they should use force. In the case of the criminal cases, the police in most cases do not determine the use of force as reasonable instead the citizen sitting on the jury has the responsibility of determining the reasonableness of the energy that the police should use when dealing with criminal cases. The purpose of the study is to help in eliminating the excise of power by law enforcement and maintaining in answering the questions that arise in the research.
Research question and hypotheses
Why police harrassed ration minorities hence favors white people? The reason as to why racial minorities are discriminated is because of their color, language and the groups where they belong. Since hypothesis is the things we expect them to happen, in this case, the theory of the police force is that: First, police discriminate and favor some criminals. Second police use increases more power to the poor people as compared to well up people despite that the two criminals may be found committing the same crime. The two hypotheses of the research questions are derived from the research question to show how police brutally harass some criminals while favoring others( Fryer,2016). The assumption in this scenario was to express how police apply forces to different force. The purpose of carrying out research and the two theories was to discourage the discrimination that is conducted out by the police and the courts as well. Although police have the power to use force, they should use it where necessary and in the case where they have evidence towards the suspects. Concerning the two hypotheses, the definition of dependent variable arises showing that it depends on others and for the example of excise of power by the law enforcement it will depend on the behaviors of citizens.
The theory of social conflict guides in understanding why police use force. It occurs when there is a conflict towards power — the theory explains why police involve themselves in the use of force. About my research question, theoretical frame and the two hypotheses they relate in such a way that for instance: Most of the violence is caused by the leaders and the white people who decide to use the poor people and the racial minorities people. As a result of the conflict occur between the people of low standards hence making police to use force to separate them, and as a result, it causes death, harming of innocent people and wastage of resources
( Gray, & Parker,2019). It shows that the most affected and discriminated people and those of law standards who decides to involve themselves because of the amount to cater for their needs. The theory clearly shows how people are misused, injured and how they are innocently killed.
Literature review(review of past research
The topic of the use police force and the research question as to whether the police use more power on racial minorities as compared to the white, they are connected because they want to know why some crimes are poorly treated while others are favored. They also emphasis on managing people equally as well as letting the police know the importance of using the force where necessary because not all suspects deserve the use of force others deserve to be jailed depending on their faults( Kroll et al.,2019). The research involves the effects that police cause to the innocent people and to the people that do not deserve this. It also shows that police needs to undergo training after some time to get guidance on how they are supposed to treat people this is because some cops decide to use force also and to their family as well because of family issues back in the family. They sometimes misuse their powers, and others misunderstood on how they are supposed to use their weapons at what time. As a result, they should attend training and also go for a medical check-up to confirm if they are okay physically and mentally.
The overall research design is experimental research because when conducting the is easy to predict the causes and the effects that are likely to occur in return. It shows that whenever there is the police brutality, many people die while others lose their lives as well. The experimental research under the research design is conducted at the time of vital factor in establishing a relationship between the causes and the effects of the police using the force where unnecessary. Under the research design, there are three designs which are essential in getting the research concerning the use of force by police. Those designs include. The pre-experimental study deals with observation and investigation to know the causes and effects of the exercise of power by law enforcement. True-experience relies on statistical analysis in proving or disapproving the hypothesis (Legewie,2016).
Quasi-experiment is almost similar to research, but the difference is an independent variable of the quasi is manipulated. With the help of study, there will be the reduction of the police using force since the collection of the data on the how people are affected will be collected hence making some police to suffer due to their misuse of energy. The method also helps the police in trying to reduce the use of force because they know that If they misuse their power, they are likely to lose their jobs. Also, the research will be used in controlling crime and violence among the people because if it occurs they are the one going to lose their lives and their properties .the experiment design under the research design is best-preferred method ,this is because it will be able to answer the question and the two hypotheses of the research. With the help of the process, it will help in knowing approximately how many white people are jailed at how many years are given to be out and it will also happen to the racial minorities. For the case of the hypothesis, the method helps in explaining why poor people and reach are treated a different this is because the poor cannot afford to bride the police and the judges hence they end up giving more punishment to the poor people. Also, the method helps in discouraging the use of favoritism when they are working and instead of asking them to equalize all the suspects and other citizens equally.
The distribution of the probability of the statistics is obtained through a large number of samples which are drawn from a specific population. The types of sampling involve random, stratified and cluster sampling. Random sampling consists in selecting a sample for observations from the people to make influence about the population. Stratified sampling requires grouping of people into subgroups to collected the final proportionally from the different groups. Cluster sampling, sampling is done through the gathering of people into separate cluster then collect information as per that sampled cluster. The general type of sampling is a probability sample because it involves random selection. When conducting the research, the researcher chooses people randomly and group them into different groups to get information concerning the issue. Under the probability sample, there is design used such as the systematic random design, Simple random sampling, and stratified sampling.
The purpose of making people stays in groups is to get information concerning the police use of force, know the different perspectives of the people as well as getting to know the causes and the effects them. On how to pick a small group of people to represent others it is advisable to take people in all the age groups to get different ideas concerning the police brutality. The sample size of the population to should not be less than 100 people. It will be simple to answer this question because as a researcher I need to pick some people and put them into groups to get the feedback according to their experience. Concerning the two hypotheses, the design in the sampling research takes less time for gathering information; the plan provides all the information as to why police use force and also it helps people to contribute the ideas they have towards solving this problem without fear since they are in small groups. However, the design has threats that make it not to get the collect information concerning the use of police force. Those threats include selection biases when selecting people to do a sample , the difference between the real world and the experimental world concerning the police brutality. Also, the methods used in sampling design may differ hence confusing collecting information.
Collection of data
The method is defined as a procedure of information gathering as well as measuring information on the variables of interest, and it helps the researcher solve the question, test hypothesis as well as evaluating the outcomes of the research problem. The research problem will be collected using primary data using private directive investigation. When getting appropriate information concerning the use of the police force, it is the more reliable and preferred method of collecting data since the data can be used both internally and externally long oral interview. The indirect verbal way it involves collecting information in an indirect manner which can be done via phone and other means of communication other than being there in person.the use of questioner. The method of data collection mostly happens through the asking and answering of the question. Use of agencies can be done either directly or indirectly when gathering information. It occurs when the employer pays his employees to work for him in collecting the data concerning the issue( McCarthy et al.,2019).
The period of data collection concerning the exercise of power by law enforcement it differs since some researcher may need more time in some data while others short time. Therefore the period of data collection may be a short or a long time, but in most cases when collecting data, it takes a short period. While researching the police force, there are some tools which are mostly used in the gathering of information; Those tools consists of the use of the surveys and the use of questioner. Questionnaire involves asking of the while survey involve investigation and examination as to why police are harsh to people. With the help of those tools, it will be easy to increase the response rate by asking many questions such as do police treat people equally? Why do they treat sick people different as compared to well up people ?. With the help of survey, the researcher will be able to examine many people towards the issues and also ensuring that I ask as many people as I can question concerning the matter which in return will help to get more appropriate information concerning the effect on the exercise of power by law enforcement.
Dependent variables are values that depend on independent and control variables. It occurs when you measure in the experiment and what is affected at the time of the examination. Independent variables do not depend on others. It is changed and controlled by the analysis of science. It experiences changes and in case of a difference also dependent variable changes. Control variables refer to the experimental elements that do not change in during the investigation. Some changes will be independent, others are dependent and others under control variables. The measurements of variables depend on how they are conceptualized and also the kinds of indicators that have been used when measuring the variables. Analysis of variables can be done at different levels such as the: Normina level, original level, interval level, and ratio level. The standard scale measures the distance between the values. Ordinal variables, the variables helps in the ranking of the amount from the higher to lower amount used. Interval variables help in showing that property has a different number which presents different variables. Ratio variables have a zero which presents the absence of variable to be measured.
The terms reliability and the validity in the variance are used in the study of science; they are among the features dependent, independent and control variables among other variables. They are both identified after doing analyzing the research of dependent and operational definition where they are established. It is a requirement that when designing a study, the consider ability of the investigator to give support to both reliability and validity use of the questionnaire independent is conducted in measuring the validity or the reliability. The values of the independent variables can quickly determine the value of the other variable which is held in the experiment. The factor of the control variable is kept within the scientific groups performing analysis ( Miethe et al.,2019). Control variables are most preferred variables as compared to dependent and independent variables
While testing the hypothesis, there is a various step as I researcher I need to consider such as the statement of theory, setting the criteria for decision, computing the statistical measures and finally making the right decision concerning the hypothesis( Terrill et al.,2018). The statics that I prefer to use when testing of hypotheses is descriptive statistical techniques because it helps in a measurement of the theory as well as coming up on the ways on how to make the right decision towards hypothesis. Descriptive usually provide a simple summary concerning the sample and observation done. The reviews include either statistics summary or visual summary. The outlines may be either the basis of the initial description of the data or they may be sufficient in the time of the particular investigation.
The major ethical issues that the researcher keep into consideration include the informed consent, which means that there is knowingly, voluntarily and intelligently of a person towards the research problem and also it brings a clear and visible way of the research problem. Also, the ethics issue in research tend not to harm people and instead try to solve the challenge (Worden, 2015). Finally, the ethical question of the study aims at adding more skills and knowledge to the researcher.
Dear sir /madam
My name is Paul. I am a writer with an experience of more than ten years. I like doing research projects. If you get time, I would like us to chat with you concerning the job opportunity on the plans. Kindly reach me out using this phone number or via email.
Thank you. I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Human subjects certificate
Certificate of completion from (AICPA)American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. From the office of research certify paul successful completed the training on research projects.
Date of completion 25/10/2016
My contribution of the research towards the criminal justice is that suspects should be treated according to their crimes without the exercise of power by law enforcement, and if force has to be used, there must be evidence. The research was mostly dedicated to the police and to the criminology field advising them to avoid the use of force were unnecessary and instead to conduct their duty accordingly. To the citizen also, it was to let them know that they should avoid doing crimes for it always lead to harm in their body and as a result, they should prevent wrong needs that will force police to use force. The research can also benefit an agency to let them know how they are supposed to treat their employees and society at large.
Ariel, B., Farrar, W. A., & Sutherland, A. (2015). The effect of police body-worn cameras on use of force and citizens’ complaints against the police: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of quantitative criminology, 31(3), 509-535.
Fryer, R. (2016). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force
Gray, A. C., & Parker, K. F. (2019). Race, Structural Predictors, and Police Shootings: Are There Differences Across Official and “Unofficial” Accounts of Lethal Force?. Crime & Delinquency, 65(1), 26-45.
Kroll, M. W., Brave, M. A., Kleist, S. R., Ritter, M. B., Ross, D. L., & Karch, S. B. (2019). Applied force during prone restraint: is officer weight a factor?. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology, 40(1), 1-7.
Legewie, J. (2016). Racial profiling and use of force in police stop: How local events trigger periods of increased discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 122(2), 379-424.
McCarthy, M. M., Porter, L. E., Townsley, M., & Alpert, G. P. (2019). The effect of community- oriented policing on police use of force: does community matter?. Policing: An International Journal
Miethe, T. D., Venger, O., & Lieberman, J. D. (2019). Police use of force and its video coverage: An experimental study of the impact of media source and content on public perceptions. Journal of Criminal Justice, 60, 35-46.
Terrill, W., Paoline III, E. A., & Ingram, J. R. (2018). Beyond the final report: A research note on the Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes project. Policing: An International Journal, 41(2), 194-201.
Worden, R. E. (2015). The ‘causes’ of police brutality: theory and evidence on police use of force. ER Maguire, & DE Duffee, Criminal Justice Theory: Explaining The Nature and Behavior of Criminal Justice, 2, 149-204.