Topics on Product and Service Design

Product Design

Bench Marking

It refers to the technique employed by the company to measure its performance level against the best or toughest competitors. The company will determine how its competitors attained the performance levels and use the gathered information to improve its performance. Benchmarking helps the company understand its strengths and weaknesses. Through benchmarking, the organization can satisfy the needs of the customer by improving its performance and establish new goals (Cudney & Furterer, 2012). The key steps involved in benchmarking include the following. First, the company must decide what to benchmark by understanding the existing business process. Second, the organization will analyze the business process of other companies. Third, after the analysis, the company will compare its performance with those of the other companies. Fourth, the organization will implement the steps required to close the gap identified. The types of benchmarking include internal, external, performance, functional, strategic, process and international benchmarking.

Reverse Engineering

It refers to the technique of analyzing the system to determine its components and interrelationships and create physical representations of the system in another form or an advanced level of abstraction. Besides, the components of the system are duplicated without the aid of computer models or drawings. The engineered artifacts are deconstructed to exhibit their inner details (Rouse, 2007). The primary objective of reverse engineering is to redesign the existing system to enhance its maintainability. Also, it is undertaken to duplicate the system without accessing the original design. Software reverse engineering entails reversing the machine code of the program to the source code (Rouse, 2007). The process is undertaken when the source code gets lost, to study the operations of certain programs, identify malicious programs and fix bugs. Hardware reverse engineering entails taking apart a device to determine how it operates. For instance, a processor manufacturer can purchase a competitor’s processor, deconstruct it and make a similar processor.

Computer Aided Design

It refers to the use of information technology that is a combination of computer hardware and software to design computer models, products or documents that are defined by geometrical parameters. Moreover, the computer aided design offer the following services. First, Individuals or organizations use CAD to produce both 2-D and 3-D drawings of physical components of the product. Second, it is used to create a conceptual design and layout of the product, and its strength and dynamic analysis. Third, it is used to reports on environmental impact whereby CAD provides photographs of the new structures. The limitation of CAD is that it cannot be used to comprehend real-world concepts (Daigneau, 2010). For instance, it cannot comprehend the nature of the object that is designed.

Service Design


It refers to the written document that is used during the design process to illustrate a detailed explanation of the aim of the project and the development of the ideas. The team in the organization will use service specification to share their design principles that could include pictures, drawings and other documents that are relevant. Similarly, service specification is essential in situations when the organization has long-term processes or engages in projects that entail a wide range of figures. Service specification includes performance based, design and delivery specification.


It refers to the operational tool that is used to illustrate the nature and features of the customer interaction with the products or services over a certain period. Besides, it is used to deliver a successful customer experience. The blueprint is based on a graphical technique that depicts all the processes involved that include physical evidence, customer actions, onstage employee actions and backstage employee actions and support processes (Ross, 2014). Organizations use service blueprint due to the following reasons. First, it is used when the company wants to improve the types of service it offers to the clients. Second, it is used when the company wants to introduce a new service that consists of a mixture of both digital and non-digital touchpoints. Third, a service blueprint can be used to coordinate the complexity of many players in the service.


The organization is at risk with its digital service; therefore, it prefers to break it into phases to minimize the risk and learn about it to identify what works and what does not. The phases in service design include the following. First, the organization will conceptualize by drafting the scope of the project and create desired features and requirements. Second, it will identify the components of the service package. Third, it will determine the performance specification that involves illustrations of functional performance that are required for a particular product. The fourth phase is to translate performance specification into design specification that entails design features and manufacturing methodology. Lastly, the organization will translate design specification into a delivery specification.



Cudney, E. A., & Furterer, S. L. (Eds.). (2012). Design for six sigma in product and service development: Applications and case studies. CRC Press.

Daigneau, R. (2010). Design patterns for domain services: Solutions for the foundational elements of service oriented architectures. Boston, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

Rouse, M. (2007, January). What is reverse engineering? – Definition from Retrieved April 10, 2016, from

Ross, I. (2014, August 20). Service Blueprints: Laying the Foundation. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from


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