Within the last two centuries, humanity has witnessed several infections that have become a burden to them, most of which are too formal to control. The discovery of the vaccine and vaccination have reduced this burden of infectious diseases. Some of these diseases have been eradicated including smallpox and other diseases such as polio, tetanus and missiles have been restricted and are no longer affecting people as before. This has been achieved because of technology. Several researchers have established various discoveries for new vaccines including human papillomavirus vaccine that was discovered in the year 2006 through technology. Because of the radical changes and climatic changes as well as the movement of the population throughout the globe, producing enough vaccines which are efficient have become difficult. The rapid spread of infections such as Ebola, HIV and Zika have increased this need. This means that it is essential to have rapid development and effective vaccines to deal with pathogens that leads to the diseases. Ebola has massively affected the people asking it necessary to have better management and distribution of vaccines. Because of the changes, methods of identifying the best procedures of producing vaccines makes it necessary to have technology incorporation. The new technology has enabled large scale production and a pivotal significance. The main objective of this research is to discuss viral vector technology and other nucleic acid vaccines together with the role that technology has played in developing or advancement of new vaccines to tackle the global health challenges.
Keywords: Technology in vaccine, DNA vaccine, Ebola vaccination, Ebola problem, vaccination development, vaccine development, mMRN vaccine.
Within the past few decades, the medical sector has witnessed numerous development of new vaccinations technologies that make the full use of attenuation techniques with the increasing amount of pathogens are witnessed. Biological engineering makes use of protein-peptide antigens together with a viral vector to handle the problem of Ebola the Challenges of developing Ebola Virus Vaccine, 2Most of these technologies have given a massive boost to the excellence of Ebola vaccination. Viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines have offered a solution to the challenges that are faced by the developers of these vaccines. To visualize the time needed between the outbreak and the clinical trials, there is the need to depict the significant pandemics that relates to the clinical trials of different viral vectors and acid-based vaccines that use technology for the efficiency.
Source: Golding et al.2
The figure above shows various stages of vaccine development that have been done against the recent outbreaks. The use of technology has heightened the timeline especially at the time when the viruses that are spreading faster than the available vaccines. The figure shows the applied technology exclusively for the development of viral vector and nuclide acid.
By the year 2018, the global population had grown up to number more than 7 billion. More than half of this relation live in areas and urban settings that are highly populated. There are several other factors such as travel time that have changed drastically as the number of people traveling is also expected to grow up to four million by the year 2061. Because of the population density and the increased contact between the people, the virus is rapidly spreading as more people coming into contact. It has also been increased by the climatic changes and the abundance of the pathogen bearing factors that promote infections with the wide range of diseases that are vector-borne based. The occurrence of disease outbreaks prostrated the need to improve in technology.
The Viral vector-based vaccines technology
Viral vector-based vaccines rely on the antigen delivery that is encoded on the modified virus. These vaccines represent a highly versatile strategy that gives several advantages over other vaccines and other technologies. This technology employees live vector or replication vector. Through the 1980s, the research conducted established a variety of viruses with vaccine vectors that were engineered by encoding the heterologous antigens.The heterologous antigen is usually scheduled within the host cells by the technology call vector. After the delivery, the antigens unexpressed with the host inducing an immune response against the target pathogens.Various descriptions and action modes can be explained by technology. A wide variety of viruses are employed with the construction of a viral vector that is based on vaccines. These viruses include adenoviruses and parvoviruses. Newcastle disease virus has been modified with the technology to exceed the expectations. There are several reasons why this technology might be effective. These technologies have been effective for a long time. Assessing the efficiency of this technology have been easy because of the readily available materials involved. Adenoviridae has also developed viruses stranded DNA gene that ranges from 30 to 40 kb. This makes this technology effective as there are several genes within the human species. Human has 57 identified adenovirus classified within them. With these several viruses, this technology makes application easier as the receptor always on the human cells to allow tropism of the virus.
Biological basis and the need for vaccines
Ad based vaccines are biologically constructed as replicas to replication-defective vectors through vector technology. These vaccines generated through replicating transcript A1 and b. The virus E3 and E4 genes are always deleted to prevent the elimination of infected cells. Because the ad virus usually changes the nuclei of the first during the transcription replication. There is always a reason for genomic integration. Ebola causes fever and has led to a high mortality rate in the countries that it has affected. The natural reserve area of Ebola virus is believed to be in bats. From the first documentation of the Ebola virus in the year 1976, polyomavirus witnessed periodically in the central Africa countries and some parts of South America. At the time, there have been numerous attempts to develop a vaccine against it, and the attempts have not been as successful as expected due to different reasons. However, when it appeared in West Africa in the year 2013, the region was highly affected and was also contributed by the poverty that is experienced in the area alone armed conflicts. The main factors that contributed to this outbreak what a dysfunction or health care systems and the inability of the local people to control the virus. Ebola crisis has represented the very first epidemic between the years 2013 to 2016, and there have been more than 12000 reported deaths from the time WestAfrica was struck by the virus. The crisis of Ebola has led to the need for developing and advanced (rVSV-ZEBOV) that is made efficiently by the use of technology.
Health risks, legal and ethical issues of using the technology
Despite the many advantages that have been associated with developing viral vector-based magazines using this technology, other aspects have to be considered because of the limitations presented in the development. The first limitation is that viral vectors are organisms that are genetically modified or GMOs. Because they are genetically modified organisms means that they are presenting a considerable risk to human health and the environment. Developing them presents health risks that have to be regulated. Several regulatory agencies require environmental risks assessment to evaluate the health risks that are posed by genetically modified organisms. In the United States, the FDA have given a publication of the environmental assessment with several vector viral-based vaccines having safety concerns in human health. There is a potential integration of the host genome in the human body. The other health risk is that persistent replication of the vaccines that have to be carefully accessed before it is administered.
The persistent replication of the genes has to be carefully assessed as concerns about safety have led to delays in the clinical administration of these technologically advanced vaccines. The other limitation comes during manufacturing where the viral systems need the high propagation that makes it necessary to have different manufacturing facilities for the viral vector platforms. Because viruses undergo different combination during production, there must be a lot of care when keeping the cell cultures free. This may result in the emergence of pathogens that are uncharacterized. The microorganisms that may be potentially manufactured during the production process have to be addressed. Because the production of viral vector-based vaccines requires complex technological processes are the requires components from humans substances such as cells and trypsin. There is a possibility of contamination that has to be avoided. The contamination may result in vaccines that are risky to humans such as rotavirus vaccines and circovirus vaccines. It is these health risks and environmental limitations that make the production of the vaccines a highly complex process making it a very cost-effective intensive procedure.
The need for these vaccines despite the costs of technology
For more than 200 years since the development of the first vaccine in the world, vaccination has had a massive impact in the healthcare sector and have massively decreased the button that people around the globe have been facing with infectious diseases. Vaccination has helped to reduce the burden that people faced in eradicating dangerous diseases such as smallpox, and it has also allowed restrictions or other illnesses such as tetanus measles and polio. These are infections that are still present to this moment but are no longer a threat to humanity because of vaccinations.1Several research efforts have been put to improve on the establishment and discoveries of new versions including human papillomavirus (HPV) that was a vaccine developed in the year 2006. Radical changes that have taken place because of age distribution and density, as well as traveling habits of the population throughout the globe, have made it difficult in many locations. Other factors such as the traveling habits of their humanity throughout the globe and the changing of climate have been favoring the emergence of the new vaccines as well as some of the old pathogens that make these diseases even more rampant.
The justification for supporting vector technology in developing vector vaccine
Recently, they have been as a rapid spread of infections that are even more severe including human immunodeficiency virus, Ebola and Zika virus. The impact and capacity of these viruses have highlighted the need to have a global preparedness that can be used in case of this bender making it necessary to have a rapid development and distributes these vaccines against the and loans and their impact on the pathogens. The antibiotics and bacteria has also lead to new approaches that prevents the diseases apart from vaccinations. Because of the changes, these establishments will be used to identify the vaccine production. Technology will be a crucial part of the vaccine production as it replicates and leads to a massive production for such a dangerous disease. The outbreak in West Africa also made it necessary to have an existing vaccine. Also, it has made public health care to respond quickly and use the available safe vaccines to help with affected people. When looking at the options, technological vector vaccines had already been tested in animals and had gone through the first phase of the human test. Now, these vaccines are ready and safe for effective vaccinations. Large scale trials have also been successful to a degree. Healthcare workers along the other caregivers and the target population that can be used for these vaccines and the trials during the vaccination campaigns have also not been quite successful. However, there are numerous ethical and methodologies and issues that have to be considered especially when conducting the clinical trials with the use of a licensed vaccine against the infection of Ebola. Adenoviral vectors are manufactured within the mammalian cell culture used commonly in HEK 293 cells that give the E1 pretend entrance and allows for viral replication. The production systems support various units that are done at a relatively low cost of production. The Adenoviral vectors can induce important antibody to sell that response to an immune response depending on the technology applied.
There has been a massive proliferation of vaccine candidates against Ebola development for more than one decade before the year 2014 Ebola outbreak. However, none of these verses have been approved for a successful and safe human use for clinical purposes. There have been several successful verses in proposals that are shown to protect the primates that are not human against the little infection but not for the human values.1, 3 The replication-deficient adenovirus vector that was developed recently uses the replication of the vascular stomatitis as well as their by influenza of the human vectors. The conventional trials that have been made to study efficiency against the pathogen for humans have also failed due to the ethical concerns. Because of these situations, the FDA have given an establishment of their animal efficiently rule that allows licensing of the drugs based on the animal model and the studies done by human replica disease.
In the year 2016, there was a study that found that showed the efficiency of technological application and the percentage of 70% was realized making this the first vaccine to be approved against the Ebola disease. In the year 2016, these ideas became a massive concern because of the workers who are protecting the people suffering from Ebola virus without being infected for more than 12 months. A study was done from healthy volunteers who used the magazine in the UK from the year 2014 to the year 2016. These vaccines included the aMSD that was outside of us and Canada. The vaccines that were used also included rvsv-zebov that is being used in the Ebola outbreak that took place in Congo.After more than one and a half years, the study found that the volunteers who the tests were performed on hard, strong response to the virus.
Feasibility and efficacy of the technology.
Application of the other vaccine development using technology has been taking place in West Africa because people are scared of such an outbreak and making it crucial to get the best viable solution. The agency has also opened opportunities that addresses the Ebola and other infectious diseases without having any vaccination available. In addition to the vaccination of Ebola, people have the mandate to speed up the entire process of vaccine production and injection for controlling the disease epidemics. The vaccine is currently used in clinical testing on humans due to the various out brakes. Through using the same technology, Ebola vaccine known as viral vectors have significantly reduced the time that it takes to develop such vaccines.1 Viral vectors have been used to track the gene of Ebola out and put the alassab gene in. One of the greatest strengths of viral vector technology is because the vaccine is taken against the Lassa fever and therefore what recognitions do is to take out the Ebola gene out of the system and put Lassa gene into the system.The meters are currently being tested with the trials in Saudi Arabia and other places where there is Ebola outbreak. Clinical trials on a vaccine against chikungunya have not been found.Viral vectors technology also makes vaccines better to test on human subjects. Because of this technology, it is less time as compared to the lack of technology. Technology has existed for the longest possible time and lack of foresight and findings to help in developing these versions have always put them and their development on hold.
In conclusion, the dimensions of the Ebola epidemic that ravaged West Africa have resulted into problems that have made the public to have an urgent need or producing safe and effective vaccines that can help to save the population. The outbreak made it necessary to find her first strategies of producing surfer vaccines in larger quantity. The emergence of Ebola pathogens has made the healthcare sector to vouch for preparedness against future pandemics through producing technologically modified vaccines. The vector-based vaccines have proven to be relevant to the people and have led to improvement and anticipation. However, despite the positives, the technological use results to potential health risks. The vector vaccines are genetically modified organisms that present a massive problem to the human population.
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